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UK*ii;i»lTY Of 
r*l IfORNlA 

^ . ♦. A CRUZ 











A First Germati C<»urse. By j B, JoERa, B,A. 

t' "^ '.'■' *' '- T^ ■:. - ■':- , 'MTiyr Class Master 

iter at Dviwicb 
/\ ^ i '^.j~.^. ^u*-. wi ;iic Modem Side, 

^ I I' Uege. 192 pages, crown 8 vo. Illustrated, 

!- .3. 


1 »^ .S : 

cs. Edktid 

Laitis about 

, ^ ^^ 

.cr, td each 


The am tz 


he obt;iinrd 

Citercuie^ jltt ttttUiliatatl so a» t>> 

A New French Grammar. By R. H. Allpskss, 
M A , Master oc the IModem Side at tile Ciiy of 
L ' ■ / ^ /: I, -cs-L.. Prindpal 

I 'on SchnoL ifjs 

. ^ *.^ #.^ 

st aire ; 
. .cricft of 

"it^n. . . . 1 ur v«.iiuTOf w kiJiiitraUMl 
^ it Is to work of high mtnt,."—TA^ 

Ca^soirs fen&7 French r 

by OS V- Pa^ hn-Pavme Eaci 

LompIrt« in one volume, cloth, price rs, tjwl 


CmAfleirii New Fr- ^r^r-*^ nf^-f s^w^r^r-y. TReNCt?^ 
EjfGLJSR : by JaM«!> 

t>E V 1 

in th' ■.■:■.■ . • . . ■, ■ I -• , . ■^ . ■vJi 

.;ly boi^id in dodi, ^. 64^, gr In half 

^\ - 

Caftfteira Latin Dir uary. LATIN-ENOUaW— 
^ T(W^jiinii. Thorougljly 

CA551 .^4V, Lut*T»», L6i*<fflrt. r«rv, i»f«i T^k, 


OF . 


Th« "* Po|>ukr Edacalor ** LesiooSf ba^ed on Dr. Zamenhofff 




F.B.E.A. 'S 






The f ayoniable reception accorded by students and 
teachers to these lessons, which originally appeared 
in the Popxti^ar Educator, has led to their publica- 
tion, with numerous additions, in a more conyenient 
form. Founded, as they are, on Dr. Zamenhof's 
Eezkrcaro, it may not be presumptuous to call them 
the Standard Coxtrse of Espbranto, as by general 
consent these Bzerdses are acknowledged to be an 
indispensable preliminary to the study of the language. 
Indeed, alter working through them according to 
the plan prescribed on page 7, the student will have 
little to do beyond extending his vocabulary and 
acquiring facility in using the rules with which he 
has already become familiar; and this can best be 
done by reading the Krbstomatio and other models of 
Esperanto literature. 

These exercises lend themselves to a practical method 
of teaching conversation which the compiler strongly 
recommends. Nearly all the sentences admit of an 
interrogative form. The teacher asks each individual 
a question^ and the student replies in the same words, 
with the sole addition of an affirmative or negative. 
For instance, at the first lesson, p. 8 : Q. " Cu la 
leono estas besto ? A. " Jes, la leono estas besto" And 
so on. Although simplicity itself, this method is very 
effective. Students feel they are making progress. 
Their ears are being trained to catch unaccustomed 


sounds, their tongues, to give utterance to them, 
and they begin to lose the natural shyness of English 
people in speaking a foreign language. Subsequently, 
the teacher may ask the question in English, and the 
student will reply in Esperanto ; but this should not 
be attempted until some facility has been acquired. 
The compiler desires to return his sincere thanks to 
Mr. E. a. Mn^WDGE, F.B.E.A., for most valuable 
assistance in preparing the Notes ; to M. Sam. Meyer, 
of La Rochelle, Mr. John Ei,us, P.B.E.A., and 
Mr. D. H. LABfBERT, B.A., P.B.E.A., for many addi- 
tions and corrections in the Commercial Vocabulary ; 
and to Major-Generai, Cox, for permission to use 
the Table of English Prepositions, page S6y abbreviated 
from his " Grammar and Commentary of Esperanto." 
Grateful acknowledgment must also be made to M. de 
Beaufront's " Commentaire," and to M. Paui, 
Pruictier'S " Sintakso " for much of tne information 
embodied in the Notes. n*^ 




AccuSATivs, the, explained 

AccusAtiTB of DlrtotkNi 

Note I 
Note 7 

AccusATivs of Time or Duratkm 


NoU 8 
Note 4 

Note 2 

agreement of 
Adverbs .... 
Adverbiai; Form after Infinitive, etc Note 4 

„ „ of PARTICIPI3 

Asftid^B, the . • . 




Notes 28, 29 ' 
Note 3 8 

CoMMEROAi, Correspondence and Forms .69-75 

„ Vocabui^ary . ... 76 

CoNDmoNAi, Use of . . . Notes 27 

„ „ . . . Note 3 30 

„ „ . . . Note 9 33 

Contraries 10 

Comparison. — Degrees of . . . .14 
CoRREi^TivE Words. — Table and Explanation 38-41 
61L — General Interrogative . . Note 2 23 
Cik— Used in place of " if " . . Note 8 33 

Da. — ^Explained 44 

B«i— Use of Note 5 13 

B«i— After Passive Verbs .... 25 
Days of Week, The 35 

tI subject index. 

^ MSB 

EL^-Used Intensiyelj • • • NoU i 39 

PBIno, I^ 63 

Pkmininbs 10 

PT7XX71U9 in place of Prbsbnx • Note 3 19 

„ „ Past . . NoU 8 27 

iMPBRAnvs alter an Ordery Wish, etc. Note 7 17 

„ in place of iNFmravB. ^Tote 7 27 

„ „ . Note 5 31 

IsfDViFnsDiSSX Words. — ^Table and Explanation 3S-4X 

INTERROGATIVB, the . . . Note 2 23 

MaL — Contrary 10 

Menia Note 6 23 

Mbthod of Study 7 

Months, The 16 

" 60 


-Title of honour 
NOMINATIVB after E8tl . . . Note 4 
,, , Indirect Object in . Note 4 
„ alter Prepositions in general 

„ „ „ all ^iBf tra . 

„ of Pxedicatiye Adjs. and Participles 

Noun, The .... 
Numbers, Cardinal and Ordinal 

„ Fractions, Multiples, Collectives 

ObjSct, The, Direct 
„ „ Indirect . 


PARTiciPiA.~Adyerbial Form of 

Per. — For the Instrument 

Pi^URAi;, The 
Po.— Explained 
PrBdicatb in Nominative 

Prefix. — Mai-, opposite . 
„ Ne-i negative . 

„ Ge-| union of sexes 

M lO-^ relation by marriage 

Note 4 
Note 5 

Notes 28,29 

Remark 30 

Note 5 12 

. 25 







.10, 45 

Note I 46 


. SO 

Note 9 
Note 9 
Note 2 
Note 6 


pRKPiz. — Ek-y oommenoement • • NoU 2 
„ Dl8-y separatioii .... 

,, Ro-i repetition. • . 

Ps^posmoNS, followed by Nominative NoU 3 

„ in Case of Direction. 

„ repetition of, when used as 

Prefix . . Note 10 

,, Jo explained .... 

„ Table of English, with 

l^speranto equiv^dents • 

Prbsen* in place of Pas* . • Nots 7 

„ „ „ . . Note 3 

„ „ „ . . Note 4 


Pronoxtns, Personal 

„ Possessive . • . 

QuAUFYiNG Adjbcxivs in Accusative Remark 

Shipfing Tbrms 

Ships, Boats, Rigging, Machinkry. 
8faL — Explained .... Note 7 

. Note 3, 4 

Notes and Rem. 
Note 3 

8iil.— Used with Trans. Verbs in Reflexive 

Sense .... Nots 16 
»» >» „ ff Note 9 

SupPES. — -tot, Occupation 

„ -iiii Feminine 

„ -ill Instrument 

„ -ar, Collective 

„ -a}, Concrete . 

„ -eo, Abstract . 

„ -Idf Descendant 

„ -aii| Member • 

9, -estr, I^eader • • 

M -ui, Person 

M -6l^ Diminutive 
















•effi Angmentatire . 
-6j, Affectionate (mas.) 
-lU, (fern.) 

to Cause to be 
-lg:i to Become 
-eM, Possibility 
-Hidv Worthiness 
-•m, Disposition . 
-er, Uiiit 
-ady Duration 

„ "©if Place • 

» "Ujf That which contains 

„ -InflTi Holder c 

„ -um, Indefinite 

TRANsmvB Verbs. — ^To distinguish 
Ttiat. — ^Various meanings 
TmB OP Day. — ^Method of Expressing 
Unu, as Apparent Article 

VBrb. — ^Active, Simple Tenses 
,, Active, Compound Tenses 
„ Passive 


What— To be traxulated That which 


Note 7 

Note I 
Note 2 

Note 9 
Note 3 















(AppMtfing in the Pc^dlar BouC4T(»i)i 

EsPBRANTO it an artificial language invented by Dr. 
L. Zamenhof,* of Warsaw, as an auxiliary "international" 
language, which, in addition to its mother tongue, each 
nation will learn in order to communicate with every 

Two objections to this idea have been advanced :— 
(i) that it is impossible to create an artificial language 
possessing the vitality of a natural language, or one 
equally suitable for speech, composition and translation ; 
(2) that if created, the variations in national pronuncia- 
tion would render such a language mutually unintelligible. 
Both of these objections have been answered in the 
most practical manner by the First International 
Congress of Esperantists held at Boulogne in August, 
1905, at which not only were all the proceedings and 
discussions in Esperanto, but plays and recitations 
(including parts of " Hamlet *' and comedies by Moli^re) 
were given in that language, and were perfectly under- 
stood by representatives of thirty nations, who 
applauded eveiy point and laughed at every joke as 
if they had been listening to their own mother tongue. 

* Bjr whose Und pernilwIuM tiM fttBowlng exercises tre here printed* 


No Uving language, like English or French, could 
ever hope to be generally accepted as " international *\ 
owing to the jealousy its selection would cause. We 
could not expect the Russians, for instance, to accept 
English, any more than they could expect us to accept 
Russian. Learn modem languages by all means; as 
many of them as you have time and opportunity to 
acquire. To enable students to do this, is one of the 
chief aims of The Popular Educator. But as it is 
impossible for any one to learn aH the languages of the 
world, learn also Espbranto, which will enable you to 
converse and correspond with men of all other nations. 

The chief merits of Esperanto are :— (i) its neutraUty 
^AX is a foreign language for all ; (2) its simplicity — it 
possesses little grammar with no exceptions ; and (3) 
lis flexibility^ which enables every shade of meaning to 
be expressed with the utmost delicacy and precision. 
It might be called the "business" or "scientific*' 
language of the world, and we shall conclude this series 
of Lessons by showing its application to the ordinary 
affairs of commerce. 

When a word is already international, like "telegraph ** 
the author has adopted it without further alteration than 
is necessary to bring it into the scheme of phonetic 
spelling. The other roots he has selected, according 
to their degree of intemationality, from English, 
French, German and Latin — only rarely from Czeck or 
Slav; but whatever the source, each root has been 
chosen from some ruU tongue — nothing is arbitrary. 


Thb Alphabet. 

The following letters of the English Alphabet do not 
exist in Esperanto : — q, W| X| y. 

The following OOnsonantS are pronounced as in 
English : — b, dy f 9 h (always aspirated), k| I, llli lli p, r 
(but more trilled if possible), t| V, z. 

The following OOnsonftntS have a special pronuncia- 
tion : — 

like tS in bits, tsar (German c) 

(never as in English, either hard or soft). 

6 n Ch „ Ohurohi Ohat, Oilin (Eng.) 

(not the soft French ch.) 

e >f e »f go, get, good (hard). 

i f> ff » iTin, gem, gentle. 

„ dg „ judging, fidget. 

(not the soft French £,) 

d „ ch ,, loOil (or the German ch)» 

(At first, English people can pronounce it as kh 
in kharld. Fortunately, this letter is rarely 
met with). 

J ,» f »> yes, yoke. 

(This letter is always a oonsonant, never a voweiy 

1 „ Zh, or like z in azure. 

(or like the French /in d^'d,jardm). 

8 „ 8 in tee, hisS. 

(never like c, as in tvw). 

§ „ 8h „ 8he, ship. 

U Although this accented fi has the appearance of a 
vowel, it is really as much a consonant as J ; it 
cannot stand alone, and is only used to follow a 
and 6. No separate pronunciation is ever 
required, and in combination, it may be 
explained as 00 'without prolongation (Eng. 
final w). 


The IfO WOi t are pronounced as in singing t— 
do, rg, mti, fa* 

a like a in flither or ah I 
e „ ay „ may, say. 

I ,, ee „ meet, seen. 

O „ O „ so, open, tone. 

II ,, 00 ,, mOOn. 

(never like ■ in milte or nllt.) 

The vowels always maintain the above alphabotloal 

pronunciation, whether at the beginning, middle or end 
of the syllable. The sound is never shortened, or 
varied in any way, except as explained in the next 

The following combinations have been called dlph- 
thOflfir^ which term implies the union of two vowels. 
But as U and J are OOneonantOf the title is inappropriate. 

If the two letters are pronounced separately accord- 
ing to their alphabetical value, at first slowly, and the 
speed gradually increased until the sounds coalesce^ the 
result will be indistinguishable from the pronunciation 
specified below : 

aj like al in aisle. 

,. I «• nigh, fine, fire. 

maying, laying, saying, 
toy, boy, joy. 

ruin (Spanish muy), 

COW, how (German au), 

thoy whOO (pronounced quickly). 

NOTB that the above combinations fdrm 000 syllable, 
not two. 

In naming a particular letter, the VOWelS have, of 
course, their own pronunciation and require no addition. 
The OOnOOnantS all take O after them. The full alpha- 
bet may, therefore, be written and read : — 

* A practical role for BngUsh hogirmtn* Experts would, in ooi^ 
versation, somewhat shorten the vowels. This, however, oan only 
be learnt orally, and is easily aoqnired at a later staf e. 










» < 



a, bo, 00, 60, do, e, fo, flTOf to, ho, Ko, 

ii Jo, )o, ko, lo, mo, no, 0, po, ro, so, 60, 

to, u, uo, vo, zo. 


The accent is always on the ponuitiiliatt (last 
syllable but one), however unimportant that syllable 
may appear : — filosofl'o (not filoSO'fio or filo'sofio), and 
each of the preceding syllables must be distinctly artic- 

Ex. 1.— Pronunciation. 

An approximate English equivalent is printed under- 
neath. An apostrophe is placed after the accented 

Always pronounce the vowels as if they stood alone 
and were not followed by a consonant ; but do not 
drawl, give them a medium length. 

AL Pa'-tro. Nu'-bo. Cl-tro'-no. Cen'-to. 

AhL Pab>tro. Noo-bo. Tsee-tro-no. Tsayn-to. 

8en'-to. 8oe'-no^ 8or-ae^ Co'-lo. O-fl-ol'-ro. 

Sayn-to. Stsay-no. Stsee-ahn. Tso-lo« O-fee-tsee-ro. 

Pa-ou'-lo. 6ar. 6l-e'-lo. 6u. cr-a. fir-a. 

Pah-Uoo-lo. Chahr. Chee-ay-lo. Choo. Tsee-ah. Chee-ah. 

Pro-oe'-80. 8en-6e'-8a. Eo. Ed. Ek. Plen'- 

Pro-tsay-80. Sayii-chay-sah. Ayts. Aych. Ayk. Playn- 

di. El. En. Do. Sen. Cran'-da. Cen'-to. 

dee. AyL Ayn. Day. Sayn. Grahn-dah. Gayn-to. 

Cip'-8o. Cus'-to. Pa'-go. Pa'-g:o. file. 

Geep-so. Goos«-to. Pah-go. Pah-dgo. Dgeess. 

fius'-ta. Re'-21. fiar-de'-no. Lon'-gra. Regr'- 

Dgoo88-tah. Ray-dgee. Dgahr-day-na Lone-gah. Rayg- 

no. SiflT'nl. Cvar-dr-o. Lin'-ffvo. fiu-a'-do. 

no. Seeg-nee. Gvahr-dee-o. Leen-gvo. Dgoo-ah-do 

Ne-lie'-bL See-iio'ra. Ho'-ro. Ao'-ro. Ao- 

Nay-hay-lah. Sayss-ho-rah. Ho-ro. Kho-ro. Kho- 

le'-ro. Ae-mr-o. i-mr-tl. Bir'-do. Prin-tem'- 

lay-ro. Khay-mee-a- Be-mee-tM. Beer-do. Preen-taym- 


po. ro-l'-ro. Pe-l'-no. I'-eL I'-am. In. 

po. Foee-ro. Fay-ee-no. Ee-ayL Ee-ahm. Eeiu 

Jam. Ju. Jes. Ju-rls'-to. Kra-Jo'-no. Ma- 

Yahm. Yoo. Yayss. Yoo-reess-to. Krah-yo-oo. Mah- 

Jea'-ta T14. Do'-moJ. Ru-i'-no. 

yayss-tah. Tooy (almost twee). Do-moy. Roo-ee-no (3 syL) 

PniJ'-no. Ba-la'-L Pa'-laJ. Di-l'-no. 

Prooy-no (a syL) Bah-lah-ee. Pah-lai (tie). Dee-ee-no (3 syL) 

YeJ'-no. Pe-re'-L Mal'-pleJ. Jua'-ta. 

Vayi-no (a syL) Pay-ray-ee (3 syL) Mahl-playi (a syL) Yoos-tah. 

Jus. ie'-tL Jur-na'-lo. Ma-Jo. Bo-na-jo. 

Zhoos. Zhay-tee. Zboorniab-lo. Mah-yo. Bo-nah-zho. 

Kea'-to. Ak'-vo. U-kvo'-ro. Pao-ka'-po. 

Kayss>to. Ahk-vo. Lee4:vo-ro. Pats-kah-po. 

I. At first view, it ma3r appear impossiUe to pronounce words 
b^:innine with the combination SO. It is rendered easier by the £act 
that such words are generally preceded by^ an article or pronoun 
ending in a vowel, la toeno. ml Mlas. The initial 8 can then be tied 
on to the concluding^ vowel and pronounced las oenOf mlt OlaSy &c. 
By practising in this way, the preliminary vowel can be dispensed 
with. Fortunately, this combination is not very frequent, and, at the 
worst, if to were pronounced 9, no ambiguity would result. 

a. The letter r wants careful attention. It should be reserved 
until the end of the syllable, and then trilled, as in singing. 

Ex. 2.— Pronuncution. 

Carefully note the division of syllables in the 
following exercise. 

While too much care cannot be taken to maintain the 
international standard of pronunciation, it may be 
stated that the construction of Esperanto is such as to 
render any occasional lapse of minor importance, as 
compared with the confusion that would result if any 
other language were mispronounced. 

La'-vi. Le-vi'-lo. Pa-ro'-li. Mem. Im-pli'-ki. 
Em-ba-ra'-so. No'-mo. In-di-fe-ren'-ta. In-ter-na- 
ci'-a. 01. He-ro'-i. He-ro-i'-no. Foj'-no. Pi'-a. 


Pal'^ Ri-pe'-tL Ar-ba'-ro. S*'^ma. Sta'-ri. 
Si-g:e'4o. Sis-te'-mo. Pe-siMo. Pe-zi'-lo. Sen'-ti. 
So-fis'-mo. Ci-pre'-so. §i. Pa'-So. Sta'-lo. Sto'-lo. 
Ves'-to. VeS'-to. Dis-Si'-ri. San-ce'-lL Ta-pi'- 
So. Te-o-ri'-o. Pa-ten'-to. U-ti'-la. Un'go. 
Plu'-mo. Tu-mul'-to. Plu. Lu'-L Ki'-u. Ba- 
la'-u. Tra-u'-lo. Pe-re'-u. Ne-u'-lo. Fratt'-lo. 
Patt-li'-no. LatL'-di. Ett-ro'-pa. Tro-u'-zi. Ho- 
di'-att. Va'-na. Ver'-so, Sol'-vi. Zor'-gi. Ze* 
ni'-to. Zo-o-lo-gi'-o. A-ze'-no. Me-zu'-ro. Na'^ 
zo. Tre-zo'-ro. Mez-nok'-to. Zu'-mo. Su'-mo. 
Zo'-no, So'-no. Pe'-zo. Pe'-co. Pe'-so. Ne- 
ni'-o. A-di'-att. Fi-zi'-ko. Ge-o-gra-fi'-o. Spi% 
ri'-to. Lip-ha'-ro. In-dig'-ni. Ne-ni'-el. Spe- 
gti'-lo. Spi'-no. Spi'-no. Ne'-i, Re'-c, He-ro'-o.. 
Kon-sci'-i. Tra-e-te'-ra. He-ro-e'-to. Lu'-e. 

Mo'-le. PaMe. Tra-i'-re. Pa-si'-e Me-ti'-o. 
In-g:e-ni-e'-ro, In-sek'-to. Re-ser'-vi. Re-zer'-vi. 

Method of Studylnc: tho folloivlnflr ExerolseOi 

1. With the help of the vocabularies and notes, trans- 

late half a dozen exercises (not too literally) into 
the best English you can find, writing only on the 
left-hand page of your exercise book. 

2. Learn each vocabulaiy by heart. (This is essential) 

3. Re-translate your version into Esperanto, using the 

right hand page of your exercise book, and 
compare with the original. 

4. From your English version, translate aloud into 

Esperanto, getting some friend, with the Esperanto 
text before him, to correct any mistakes. In this 
way you will learn to speaJt as well as to write. 

ll«lliaHc.>-In tpealdngr Esperanto; speak at least twlot M loudly 
as you are accustomed to speak Eng^lish. 


Ex. 8.^Articlb, Noun, Imfinitivb Mood» 
Present Tense. 

ArtlOle.^The Inctoflnlte article, a, aiv is not ex- 
pressed in Esperanto, being contained in the noun, 
as in Latin. 

The defllllt* article, the, is translated by la, and, 
as in English, remains unaltered, whatever the case 
or number may be. 

Noun. — All nouns end in in the nom. sing. 
Verb.— The Infinitive of all verbs ends in If^ 

ami, to lore. Mtl, to be. 
The present tenee of all verbs ends in Ml^ 

There is only ono form of each tense, for all persons 
and both numbers, the noun or pronoun before it being 
sufficient indication — as is often the case in English. 


Giro, father. kotombo, pigeoa, 

J, and. binio, bird. 

frato, brother. apartMil al, to belong to. 

l«ono, lion. al, to. 

Mtl, to be. euno, sun. 

betto, animal brtll, to shine <I.) 

rezo, rose. tailors, tailor. 
floro, flower. 

Patro^ kaj frato. Leono estas besto. Rozo estas 
floro kaj kolombo estas birdo. La' rozo apartenas al 
Teodoro. La suno brilas. La' patro estas^ tajloro. 

I. A father, not the father, &c 

a. This parUoular rots, not any rose. 

3. The father that ytn know. The det.- art ought here be underw 

stood to mean m^ father, tmr father, &c,^ or simply *' father," 
without any quahfication ; and so on. This use 01 the def. art. 
is not peculiar to Esperanto. We shouU^ sav, Givg ms your 
kand^ but the French and many others would say, Givt mm 
ttlO hand, 

4. Note that after the rer)) istl the noun remains unaltered, Le. ^ 

the nominative 1 


Ex. 4.— Adjbctivbs. 

AcUeotlve8.— AU adjectives end in a in the nom. 


Infano, chfld. tablo, table. 

»•, no, not Inill^ to lie on, to be on (I), 

matura, mature, npe ^ fenestro, window. 

homo, man, human bemg plumo, pen. 

mm, already, now Jen, an expression directtne a» 

Mm no, already not— no longer. tention to anything. Behold. 

plorl, to cry, to weep. Here (is). 

Slolo, sky, the heavens. pomo, apple 

bhia, blue. ml, I. 

kio, where. trovl, to find. 

Hbro, book. toro, earth, ground. 

hr^lono, pencil. ^ Itono, stone. 

•ur, on, upon (touching). sana, healthy, welL 

Infano ne^ estas matura homo.' La infano jam ne* 
ploras. La tielo estas blua. Kie estas la libro kaj 
la krajono ? La libro estas sur^ la tabic, kaj la krajono 
kudas' sur la fenestro. Sur la fenestro kudas krajono 
kaj plumo. Jen estas pomoi. La patro estas sana. 
Sur la tero kuSas Stono. 

I. The negative Recedes the verb instead of following it as in 

s. Nomo means a human belngr, as distinct from an animal or a 

thing; VIro, means a man, as distinct from a woman. 

3. Jam no. The sentence may be translated, the child does not cry 

now or has ceased crying, the child no longer cries. Some com. 
mentators have altered this to la Infano no plorao plu. We have 
retained the author's words because thepr^ constantly occur in 
Esperanto, and it is necessary to be familiar with them. 

4. Note that our implies tOUOhinflT* . Another word signifying abOVO 

(without contact) will be met with later. 

5. Kotas might be also used here, though kudat is more expressive. 

Cx. 6. — Thb Plural, Thb Accusative, Adverbs, 
The Past Tense, Thb Imperative Mood. 

The piurai of nouns and adjectives is formed by 
adding J to the nom. sing. 
bona patrt, m good father t bonlU pa^trtj, gpod fathers^ he 


The diroot object of all transitive verbs is indicated 
by means of the accusative termination B| ^hich is added 
to the nom. both in sing, and plural. 

Mi ama« la bonail patron. 
Ni amaa la bonajn patrcjll. 

A dIrOGt Objeot becomes the SUbJOCt of the corres- 
ponding passive sentence : — 

La bona patrO estas asnata de mi, ftc. 
This is a practical method of testing whether n particular verb 
is transitiye or not- If it will not submit to the passive form it is 
not transitive, and does not require the accusative. 

Another plan is to substitute a pronoim for the nouB>~ 
I love Mm (ace,) not I love be {ncm,) 

Adverbs may be formed from nouns and adjectives 
by changing the termination to 0: — 

sanO, health. teatrO, theatre, 

sanai, healthy. teatra, theatricaL 

sanOi healthily. teatr«, theatrically. 

A certain number of words are adverbs by nature and can be 

nothing else. These will be g^radually introduced in the followinfi^ 


The past toneo of all verbs ends in le. 

The Imperative mood (ordona modo) ends in a. 

FemlnlnSS are formed from masculine nouns by adding 
In to the root: — 

patro, father. patrino, mother. 

onklo, uncle. onklino, aunt 

knabOf boy. knablno, ^rl. 

bovoy ox. bovino, cow. 

ftc., &c. 

Contraries are formed by prefixing mal, by which 
a whole series of new words can be made : — 

bona, irood. malbona, e^il, bad. 

atnlko, friend. malamlkOf enemy. 

Mipre, above. malsuprt, below. 

pormesl, to permit malpoimiMl, to forbid. 
&c, &c. 

NOTB that mai expresses the dlrOOt opposite, with- 
out any idea of badness : — 

b«la, beautiful; nialbela. ugrly; 
but nebtla or SMbtla would be /Asm. 



klu, which, who. "J^» to remain. 

forta, »tTong, •«'"» with (m company with). 

dento, tooth. dan^ero, danger. 
df, of (possession or orifin). |cuni|l, to have courage for 
. mkrm, sharp. to dare. 

dml, to give. n^dl. to ride. 

imuio, hand. paroll, te speak, 

vldh to see. pri, concerning, about 

Jen estas la porno, kiun^ mi trovis. Leono estas forta. 
La dentoj de leono estas akraj^ Al leono ne donu la 
maaon. Mi vidas leonon. Rest! kun' leono estas 
dan^ere^ Kiu kura^as rajdi sur* leono? Mi parolas 
pri* leono. 

I. Klun. This being the first accusative encountered, and the a& 
cusative case playing a very important part in Esperanto, it is 
desirable to explain it fuUy. Although the inflected accusative, 
as applied to nouns, has dropped out of English, it is still 
visible in pronouns, nearly all of ^ which have two forms, 
according as the pronoun is the subject or object of the verb : — 
I, mo ; he, him ; she, her ; we, ue ; they, them ; who, whom, &o. 
Compare the following sentences : — Thts is iM man who saw 
me; This is the man Whom I saw. In Esperanto, this prtn- 
is universal and applies to nouns and adjectives as well as 
pronouns; the direot Objeot of a transition verb, whether 
singular or plural, bein^ always placed in the accusative, by 
adding n to its nominative termination. 

•. This sentence illustrates an important difference between Esperanto 
and English. In Esperanto the adjective always agrees in num- 
bor with its noun, though used, as in this case, predicatively, 
that is, to say something about a noun. Dentoj oeine plurad, 
requires akny in the plural: not akra, as we should say in 
English. The adjective must, of course, also agree when used 
to qualify a noun:— La aknU dentoj de la leono. (See 
Remark, Ex. 33). 

5. Prepositions in Esperanto always require to be followed by the 
nominative and not by the accusative, as in English. In the 
case of direction towards anything, the ace. that is employed 
is not due to the preposition, as will be explained later. Ex. 19. 

4. Deng^ere is given the adverbial form, ending in 0. because there is 
no noun or pronoun in this sentence with which an adjective 
couM agree, depending as it does on the infinitive reetl. Simi- 
larly, eetae dani^ere, U is dang^erous {to do something)^ &c., 
but we should say._ la leonO estas dangertk* because here there 
is a noun with which the adjective can agree. The adverbial 
form is much used in Esperanto and shoiJd be care^y noted. 


Ex. 6.— VOCABUUUtT. 

bOilAf coo4. honi, to know, to rtcogahe, to 

tepelo, hat ^^^^^ ^^ 

dirl, to say, to tell. !*»••» bread. 

ke, that, (coni.) mtoigl, to eat 

dlllffwita, dihsrent per, by meana of, by, with. 

ami, to love. buso, mouth. 

veni, to come. f laH, to smell (T.) 

kune, together. nazo^, nose. 

file, son. antMi, before, in front oL 

•tail, to stand. (I.) domo, house. 

apud, near to, by. arbo, tree. 

La^ patro estas bona. Jen kudas la fiapelo de* la 
patro. Dim al^ la patro, ke^ mi estas dilig-enta. Mi 
amas U^ patron. Venu kune* kun la patro. La filo 
staras apud la^ patro. La mano de Johano estas pura. 
Mi konas Johanon. Ludoviko, donu al mi panon^ Mi 
manias per^ la budo kaj flaras per la nazo. Antatt la 
domo staras' arbo. La^ patro estas en la dambro. 

I. See note 3, Ex. s* 

a. See note 3, Ex. 5. 

3. Kuffia is an adverb formed by adding • to kun. This method of 
forming new words is a speaal feature of Esperanto. KlUia klMf 
toggiher wiiht along vnih. 

4. This is the first example of a sentence containing both a C 

and an Indlreot object to the same verb. Panon is the direct 
object and is therefore in the ace. : ml is the indirect object 
governed b>[ the preposition al, and is therefore in the nom. form. 
Classically, it would be considered a dative, but as all cases except 
the ace. are formed by prepositions, as in English, we need not 
introduce new names. 

5. Per is the preposition used especially to denote the i 

means b^ which anything is done. The English with must never 
be translated by kun^ (which means m company with) when 
instrumentality u implied. 

6. Ettas might be used, but it would be len cxpressiTe. See note 5, 
Ex.4. ^_ 

f. The English word that has various aieamn|rs, each oE which i« 
differently translated in Esperanto. When it is a conjunction, as 
is this case, it is always translated by ka. But it may be 9 

J uncle. 
I to read. 


demonstrattTe pronoun, ikai man, ftc.> when it is traaalated by 
thlf tlo w ttm, accordinsr to its particular shade of meaning, 
(see later, Ex. si). Or a relative pronoun, either standing by 
itsdf or as part of thai whicht (see later, note 3, Ex. ss). 

Ex. 7.^Plurals and thb Accusativb. 

fkigl, to fl^, (I.) tial, therefore, for that reason, 
kantl, to sing. so. 

MTabIa, agreeable, pleasant bad, to beat. 

akvo, water. rioevi, to receive, to obtain, to 
iar, for, b ecause, since, as. ?«*• . _ ^. 

Jll, they. BVO, grandfather. 

VOll, towish,towiU. in, togo. 

lombo, boy. •»"«» now, (Adv.) 

for, forth, away. flS** 

poll, to drive, to chase away. '^B** ^ 

nl, we. ••«!» but 

okulo, eye. "»^*: 

audi, to hear. fiwilil, to write. ^ 

oralo, ear. Jf^i letter (cpisUeX 

••ml, to learn. "to^f letter (afph.) 

La' birdoj flugas. La kanto de la' birdoj estas 
ag^rabla. Donu al la birdoi akvon^ 6ar ill volas trinki. 
La knabo forpelis* ja birdoj n. Ni vidas per la okuloj 
kaj attdas per la oreloj. Bonaj infanoj lemas dilig-ente^ 
Aleksandro ne volas lemi, kaj tial mi batas Aleksand- 
ron. De' la patro mi ricevis libron, kaj de la frato mi 
ricevis plumon. Mi venas de" la avo, kaj mi iras nun al 
la onklo. Mi legas libron. La patro ne legas libron, 
sed 11 skribas leteron. 

I. The article, as in English, remains unaltered, whaterar the 
number or case of the noun. (See remark Ex. 18). 

a. Note the dIrMt and IndlrMt objects. 

S. Note the prep, joined to and preceding the verb. By this means, 
the meaning of a particular verb can often be considerably 

4. This is a true adverb, qualifying the verb larnati 

Dt has here the force of from, although its primary meaning is Of. 
It essentially denotes the OOUroo» orlffln, or OtartliHg point, and 
is in direct contrast with aL 


Bx. 8.— Dbgrbbs of Comparison, 9tc. 

Compartoon off aiQeotives.— The comparaUve of 
equaUty is expressed by tiel (as, so)...lclel (as) :— 
Mi Mtas IM forta, Uel vL 
The comparative of Superiority, by 
pM(more) ...Ol (than) :— 
Mi estas pll forta Ol vi. 
The comparative of inforiorityi by 

malpll (less) ...ol (than) ;^ 
Mi estas malpll forta Ol vi. 

The tuperiative of suporiorily, by 

plej (most) ...el (out of, among) :— 
Mi estas la plej forta ol £iuj. 

The superiative of inferiority, by 

malplej (least) ...el (out of, among) :— 
Mi estas la malploj forU Ol £iuj. 

The superiative abeolute by tre (very):^ 

Mi estas tro forta. 


Eipero, paper hola, dear, bright 

anka, white nokto, night. 

kajoro, copy or ezerdse book pala, pale. 

Juna, young lunOi moon. 
fraulo, b achelo r , unmarried otolo, star. 

^ "1^ nogro, snow. 

dolda, sweet lakto, milk. 

rakontl, to tell, relate nutrl, to nourish. 

mla, my (poss. pron.) nutra, nourishing, 

amlko, fncnd. vino, wine. 

beta, beautiful, fine, pretty. havl, to have. 

historio, history, story. via, your (poss. pron.) 

" " .'*S^S?*t.'i^3r'- freta, freri.. .«»nt, new („«. 

dozlrl, to desire, to wish. 


2* yp"ja farl, to err, to be mistaken (I.) 

oinjoro, sir, Mr., gentleman. J"; «*.^' «^««^y <>»•• 

matono, morning. oluj, all, all the 

i:oJI, to rejoice, to be glad. **^» *^"»' so, in that or sudi 

footi, to feast, to celebrate, to utS^^'^^u • u * 

entertain. ";•'» ^» how, m what manner. 

footo, festival, fite, entertain- S' "t.* . -^ /_« • 

ment (N.) •**» ^^ ^«'» »^' (reflexive pro- 
Ma, what kind of, what a. ^iSL^'^^ll refernng to the 
hocNau, to-day. wbjoot of the sentence). 

Ml, in. ^ — 


Papero estas blanka. Blanka papero ktfSas sur la 
tablo. La blanka papero jam ne kuSas sur la tablo. 
Jen estas la kajero de la juna fraUlino. La patro 
donis al mi dol6an pomon. Rakontu al mia juna 
amiko belan historion. Mi ne amas obstinajn homojn. 
Mi deziras al vi bonan tag«n, sinjoro ! Bonan 
matenon I^ 6ojan feston I (mi deziris al vi). Kia 
^oja festol (estas bodiati). Sur' la 6ielo staras la 
bela suno. En' la tago ni vidas la helan sunon, 
kaj en la nokto ni vidas la palan lunon kaj la 
belajn stelojn, La papero estas tre blanka, sed la 
ne^o estas pli blanka. Lakto estas pli nutra ol 
vino. Mi havas^ pli fredan panon, ol vi. Ne, vi 
eraras, sinjoro : via pano estas malpli freSa, ol mia. 
El 6iuj miaj" infanoj Ernesto estas la plej juna. 
Mi estas tiel' forta, kiel vi. El 6iuj siaj' fratoj 
Antono estas la malplej^ sa^a. 

I. Salutations are placed in the ace. I With yoil being understood, 
which being transitive requires the ace 

fl. The use of Mir, on or up<m, may appear strange as applied to 
the akv, to translate our English in. But the Esperanto en im- 
pUes uie ide& of to/ihin, and no other prep, than Mir can be 
found to express the fact desired. Similarly, when we say in 
the streets Esperanto says Mir la strata, 

3. En might here be translated by during: 

4. Havl always implies possession and is never used to translate our 

auxiliary verb have in compound tenses, Mtl is used for that 
purpose, as will appear later. Ex. 13. * 

5. Possessive pronouns being adjectival, follow all the rules of ad- 

jectives and therefore agree with their nouns in number and case. 

6. TIel— kM are correlatives and must be used together in com- 

parisons of equality, as in this example. 

7. 81a is only used when it refers back to the Mlbjeot of the sentence 

or sub-sentence, which in this case is Antono. Of all his 
brothers, I prefer Anthony^ would he El cir^j \)M\ fratoi mi 
^re/eras Antonon, because I is the subject. 

t. Mai expresses the contrary: ploj, most! nuUploJ, lemsL 

16 EXERaSE a 

Ex. 0.— <:au>inal AMD Ordinal Numbui. 
The oardlnal numbeni are : 
unii 1 kwar 4 Mp 7 dek 10 
dii 2 idrtn 5 ok 8 Milt 100 

tri 3 SM 6 nafi 9 mU 1000 

The numbers between 10 and 20 are formed thus : 
dek unuy dek du, dek tri, dek kwar, &c. 

The tens are formed thus : dudek (20), tridok (30), 
sesdek (60), naudek (90), &c. 

The hundreds are formed thus : duoenty triOMlt^ &c. 
Cardinal numbers undergx) no inflexion. 
NulO and mllkMIO, bein^f nouns, are inflected. 
Ordinals are formed by adding a to the cardinals, 
by which they become adjectives: unua, dua, tria, &c. 
Substantives and adverbs can be formed from these : 

trio, trie, &c. 

Thb Months op thb Year arb : 

1. Januaro 5. Majo 9. Septembro 

2. Febmaro 6. Junio 10. Oktobro 

3. Marto 7. Julio 11. Novembro 

4. Aprilo 8. AufiTusto 12. Decembro 

N.B. — Capital initials to montlu. 


povl, to be able, can Mkundo, second. 

mults, much, many. monato, month. 

f arl, to do, to make. Jaro, year. 

nur, only (adv.) aemaTiio. week. 

promenl. to take a walk. Dio, God. 

hundo, dogr. eiektl, to dioose, to select 

olo, evcrythinjr, aU. ^, it. 

finffro, hngcr, sankta, holy, sacred. 

■If she. krel, to create 

ila, her (poss. pron.) dato, date (time). 

alia, other naskl, to give birth to, to bear, 

unuj, some (onesX to bring: forth (T.) 

■ilnuto, minute. "It, ending: of past part paa* 

horOi hour. stveot verba. 

kOiMlttI, to consist a.) 


Du homoj poras pU^ malte ftui ol unu. Mi havas nur 
anu budon, ted mi havas du orelojn. Li promenas kun 
tri hundoj. Li faris 6ion per* la dek fingroj de siaj' 
manoj. El diaj^ multaj infanoj unuj estas bonaj kaj 
aliaj estas malbonaj. Kvia kaj sep faras dek du. Dek 
kaj dek fiaras dudek. Kvar kaj dek ok faras dudek du. 
Tridek kaj kvardek kvin Ceu-as sepdek kvin. Mil natt- 
cent kvin, Li havas dek unu infancjn. Sesdek minu- 
to] fyraa unu horon, kaj unu minuto konsistas el' sesdek 
sekundoj. Januaro estas la unua monato de la jaro. 
Aprilo estas la kvara, Novembro estas la dek-unua, 
Decembro estas la dek-dua. La dudeka (tago) de 
Februaro estas la kiondekunua tago de la jaro. La 
sepan tagon* de la semajno Dio elektis, ke ^i estu^ pli 
sankta, ol la ses unuaj tagoj. Kion* Dio kreis en la 
sesa tago? Kiun daton ni havas hodiatt? Hodiatt 
estas la dudek sepa (tago) de Marto. George Va- 
dington estis naskita la dudek duan" de Februaro de la 
jaro mil sepcent tridek dua. 

1. ni hang simply a word dono^ng comparison is suflBdent to ex- 
press more when applied to an a4jecttve or adverb, but before a 
verb, as here, the full comparative adverb pll inults is necessary. 

m. Note psr as applied to the instrument 

5. Slal not llal because the reference is to the subiect 

4. iliU not Slal because uniU and allal are the subjects— not Ik 

5. Note the use of •! to express off out of, and use it in similar cases, 

Note also the ace after f arao and the nom. after the prep. oL 

6. This sentence commences with the dlroot Objoot, but owing to 

the ace. there can be no ambigruity. This construction is always 
permissible when it is desired to emphasise the object 

7. Note the phrase ko ^ Ottu to translate the Engflish infinitive io be. 

This use of the imperative, whenever an order, request^ wish, 
desire, necessity, want,^ convenience, merit, in fact anything^ of 
the nature of an order is implied, is necessary in Esperanto, and 
and should be carefully noted wherever it occurs. DIni. ke III 
amu olaln fratojn, tell them to love (that they love) their 

i8 EXERaSE 10. 

BL Note tbe aoc to vnpt mm the date mi wW d l «a errat has hap- 

pened or will happen, ito la diNtok dua would be equally correct ; 
the ace. is used tn t iead qf the pr^>. Jtu SimilarlT imsb^ monih 
may be expressed J« te proktlno moiiat* or Hi prokftaHUi 

Ex. 10.~FRAcnoMS, Multiples, Collbctivbs. 

Fraotkms are formed by adding Oil to the cardinals 
and then 0, a or Oy according as they are nouns, adjec- 
tives or adverbs : — 

tai krarono^ hi kvwnoiui partAi 

Multiples are formed by adding OM to the cardinals 
and then Oy a or Oy . according as they are nouns, 
adjectives or adverbs: — 

la duoblo^ la duoUai duoble. 

Colleotlves are formed by adding op to the cardinals, 
and then adding Oy a or Oy according as they are nouns, 
adjectives or adverbs: — 

dUOpOy by twos, two together. 


6l, denotes proximity; tlii,that; per, for, for the benefit o^ in 

tlu 6l, this; tie» there; tie U, order to (always denotes dee- 

here, &c. tination ci action). 

da, of, is used inst^d of deaf- petl, to request, to bMN to ask for. 

ter words expressing' weight, post, after, behind (Prep.) 

measure or quantity. idam, when, at what time^ 

urbo, town. bezonl, to need, to want 

toil, to dwell, to lave la, to l»^» to pay or pay for. 

inhabit (I.) Itofo, stu£F, materiaL 

a6etl, to buy. kosti, to cost 

ffij o'' 6iain, always, at erery time. 

rerko, fork. wenlU, to conquer. 

r>,_agam, back. ISud,' S SJST 

prMil, to take. PWf Pa«e (of « book) 

pninte preni, to borrow(to take •Jli 1 c • i. /tv 

on loan). 52» ^^1^ ^^) 

danM, to »^anW- ^ift^f whole, entire. 

Mi havas cent pomojn^ Mi havas centon da pomoj. 
Mi a6etis dekduon (att dek-duon) da kulercj kaj du 
dekduojn da forkqj. Mil jaroj (all milo da jaroj) fans 
miljaron. Unue mi redonas al vi la monon, kiun' vi 


pruntis al mi ; due mi dankas vin por la pnmto ; trie mi 
petas vin ankatt poste pnmti al mi, kiam mi bezonos" 
monon. Por 6iu tag'o mi ricevas kvin frankojn, sed por 
la hodiatta^ tago mi ricevis duoblan pagon, t. e. (=tio 
estas) dek frankojn. Kvinoble' sep estas tridek kvia 
Tri estas duono de* ses. Ok estas kvar kvinonoj de 
dek. Kvar metroj da' tiu ti dtofo kostas natt frankojn : 
tial du metroj kostas kvar kaj duonon frankojn (ail da 
frankcj). Unu tago estas tricent-sesdek-kvfnono att 
tricent-sesdek-sesono de jaro. Tiuj ti du amikoj prom- 
enas tiam duope. Kvinope ili sin jetis sur min^, sed 
mi venkis 6iujn kvin malamikojn. Por miaj kvar infanoj 
mi a6etis dek du pomojn, kaj al tiu el' la infanoj mi 
donis po* tri pomoj. Tiu ti libro havas ses-dek pa^ojn ; 
tial, se mi legos en 6iu tago po' dek kvin pa^oj, mi 
finofl la tutan libron en kvar tagoj. 

I. Note the difFerence between these two forms. In the first, owit is 
the cardinal number and therefore inyariable» while the direct 
Objaot takes the ace. In the second, oento is a unit of measure, 
like a gross, and as the dIrMit ObjMit. is placed in the ace., while 
pooMj, STOvemed by the prep, da has the nom. form. The follow- 
tag sentences can also be expressed in the two wajrs ffiTen. 

s. Note accusative here. 

3. Note the losrical use of the future tense, whoe in Eni^Ush we should 

use the present indicative. This construction is g^eneral in Esper- 
anto, because a future occurrence is referred to. If it is desired 
to introduce an element of doubt, the adverb Oble can be added. 

4. Note how the adverb hodlafi is made into an adj. by adding m, 

5. Note adverbial form. 

6. Note the different use of de and da. 

9. This is Uie first example of the amNisatlve off direction. Whenever 
there is motion (actual or even figurative) implied, the object 
towards which motion takes place is put in the ace- whether pre. 
ceded by a preposition or not See later Ex. 19. 

8. Note oi, meaning ^, oid ^. 

Po is a distfibutive peculiar to Esperanto ; its application Is 1 
difficult, if you remember that it does not mean oaoh, but 



Ex. 11.— Personal Pronoumi. 

KjnaJ pronouns are : ml, I ; 0I9 thou; R, hei 
I, it; nl, we; Vl, you; lil| they; onl| they, 
[the French an), 
m the accusative by adding n, — mln, Vbly &o 

teadof, iaplaotofi 

lag mn 
I shoot; 


ankaji, also, 
vokl, tocalL 
|:«ntlia, polite, 
ke, that(conj.) 

,, to ahi 

ywro, truth. 
vtntro. winter, 
hejtl, toh«it(T.) 
fornOi ttovef fumaoti 

Ci^ skribas (anstatatl " d " oni uxas ordi* 
, Li estas knabo, kaj Si estas knabino. La 
infas bone, 6ar ^i estas akra. Ni estas 
estas infanoj. Hi estas Rusoj. Kie estas 
111 estas en la ^ardeno. Kie estas la kna- 
aakatt estas en la ^ardeno. Kie estas la 
111 kuSas sur la tablo, Mi vokas la knabon, 
Mi vokas la knabinon, kaj Si venas. La 
AS £ar ^i' volas man^. La infanoj ploras, 
.s man^. Knabo, vi estas negentila^ Sin- 
13.5 Qeg:entila. Sinjoroj, vi estas ne^entilaj. 
ke la vero 6iam venkas. En la vintro oni 
irrnojn. Kiam oni' estas ri6a (att ri6aj), om 
(Ljn amikojn. 

laroes oi members of a nation are sometimes written 
capital : nMOj, &C. It is not important, but capitals 
in a,£cordance with our usa^e. Names of countries and 
nyM have capitals. 

hi tile used in Esperanto* eren less than its En^rlish 
t ttiou. 

^, uin English, in connection with infants and animals 
Bex i* not known, or not necessary to be specified. 











3. Hlf ihfy, aa in English, is applied to all genders. 

4. Note the prefix IM. All adjectiTes nDij be modified in this way. 

It has the function of the English un or In and sometimes not. 

5. tnlf one, corresponding to the French on, is much used in Espe- 

ranto. Wo say, thoy say, It is said, and similar phrases are 
always expressed by onL It is generally followed by the sing. 
(rl6a) but the plural may occur (rIdiU). 

6. -Ino as a sufiix expresses the feminine gender and is of universal 

application. PmtrOf father; patrino, mother j onklo, uncle; 
onkllno, auntt knabOi hoy; knablno, girl; bovo, ox{ bovino, 
com, &C. 

Ex. 12.— PossEssivB Pronouns, 
SiBfPLB Tenses, Active. 

Possessive pronouns are formed by adding a to 
the personal pronouns: — mlSf my^ mine; Ola, thvy 
thine; ila, his; 6laf her^ hers; fi^lai its; nla, our^ 
ours; via, your^ yonrs ; Ilia, their y theirs. They 
follow all the rules of adjectives, taking the plural J 
and the accusative n« 

81a is a reflexive pronoun, referring back to the 
subject of the sentence or sub-sentence in which it 
occurs. Its proper use can best be learnt from a study 
of the following exercises and notes. 

Simple Tenses of an Active Verb. 



to love 

India— PREs. 

ml amas 

I love. 


ml amis 

I loved. 


ml amos 

I shall (wiU) love. 


ml amus 

I should love 



love (vl understood). 

U amu 

let him love, &c. 



J faithfuL iMVt, to care br, to hm 

Klilif to run. anxious about. 

VMperOy evening:. ffanllf to euard, to watdi orer, 

6u, whether; the geaenl in- tolookrfter. 

terrogative corresponding to 8**t0» gW9t, 

the EngUsh do? dtd? &c. ahompanl, to accompany (T.) 

•dzOf a married man, husband. ^flM, up to» until, as £ar as. 

montrl, to show (T.) •erol, to seek, to look for. 

nova, new. pupo, dolL 

vest!, to clothe (T.) fofffaal, to forcct (T.)i 

vMto, irarment, dothea faolla, easy. 

■Mnif self, selves. 

Mia hundo, vi estas tre fidela. Li amas min, sed mi 
tin ne amas. Mi Tolis lin bati, sed li forkuris de mi. 
Dim al mi Tian nomon. Ne skribu al mi tiajn long^ajn 
leterojn. Venu al mi hodiatt Tespere^. Mi rakontos al 
vi historion. Cu' Ti diros al mi la veron? La domo 
apartenas al li. Li estas mia onklo, dar mia patro estas 
lia' frato. Sinjoro Petro kaj lia^ edzino tre amas miajn 
infanqjn ; mi ankatt tre amas iliajn" (infanojn). Montru 
al ili vian novan Teston. Mi amas min mem', vi amas 
vin mem, li amas sin mem, kaj 6iu homo amas sin mem. 
Mia frato diris al Stefano, ke li amas^ lin pli, ol sin" 
mem. Mi zorg^ pri di tiel, kiel mi zorgas pri mi mem, 
sed di mem tute ne zorg-as pri si' kaj tute sin' ne gardas. 
Miaj fratoj havis hodiatt gastojn ; posf la vesperman^o 
niaj fratoj eliris^' kun la gastoj el sia^^ domo kaj 
akompanis ilin ^s ilia^^ domo. Mi jam havas mian 
6apelon ; nun ser6u vi vian. Mi lavis min en mia 
6ambro, kaj Si lavis sin' en sia' 6ambro. La infano 
ser6i8 sian^ pupon ; mi montris al la infano, kie kuSaa 
^u pupo. Oni ne forgesas facile sian^^ unuan amon. 


t. Instead of sayingr thl« tVMilnff. Esperanto prefins tOHtay In tht 
•VMiliv. Note the adverbial torm : Similarly, morgmfi matano, 

a. Gu is the general jnterrofiratiTe, and must alwajrs be used unless 
the sentence bes^ins wiui one of the interrogative words MUf 
MOf kiaf &c.» implying a question. 

3. Ua not 9ULf because it does not refer to the subiect of the sub- 

sentence to which it occurs. If tia were used here, the trans- 
lation would be, because my father is his (own) brother, which 
is nonsense. 

4. Some commentators of these exercises have altered this lla to Ola, 

on the ground that it refers to the subject Pttro : forgetting that 
8f njoro Polro kai lla edzlno together form the sutgect, and that 
•la being purely raflaxlva can never be used to qualify the 
subject itseu, but only to refer back to it 

5. IlllUn not •llUn— a aimilar case to Note 3. 

6. Mam means self in >ts intensive sense : it has no reflexive force like 


7. Note the present where we should use the past. This construction 

is usual m similar cases and is, indeedf more correct. He did not 
say to Stefano that he btved him (in the past) but that he loves 
him at the time of sneaking, 

8. Sin not Un because it refers to the subiect of the sub-sentence, II. 

This sentence is contracted. In full it would be Ol 01 amat) sin 

9. SI and tin not^ft and lln, because they refer to the subject of the 

sul>sentence si. 

10. Note the prep, al prefixed to the verb and then repeated This 
custom is general, and adds to the clearness, though it may 
appear tautological to us. 

11. 81a and Ilia must both be translated in English by their, which 
causes ambiguity, whereas the Esperanto is perfectly defimte. 

I a. Sian not filani because it refers to the subject. 

13. fila not ala, because pupo is the subject of the sub-sentence. 

14. 8lany because it refers to the subject onl* 

RbmarK. — It is very important that the use and limitations of the 
reflexive pronoun al and its derivatives be clearly understood. The 
only safe guide is to remember that the use of ala depends on its 
rafaranoa ta tha aubjaot of the actual sentence or sub-sentence In 
Which It eooura. In this respect Esperanto di£Fers lirom Latin. 
(De Beaufront), 

When a participle is used to qualify a direct ofyect, and in its turn 
(as a trans, verb) is followed by another direct object, ambiguity may 
arise owing to the pronoun of the participial clause not being 
expressed. LI vMia aln martigrantan alan Infanon. Whose child 
toas killed^ his or hers ? In such cases, as clearness is the essence of 
an International Lan^age, it is better to simplify the sentence 
thus x—Li vidis Un ktu mortigas alan infanon (hers) or li vidis Sin 
kim ^mortigas Han infanon (his). (Fructter), See also Remark on 
a^ya* and parts, used predicatively, end of Ex. 33. 

14 EXERCISE 18. 

Ex. 18«— Compound Tbnsbs, Actxvb. 

Compound tenses are formed from the active parti- 
ciples, of which there are three in Esperanto — 

Prbs.— «iita amanta, loring. 

Past— Inta amlnta, loTed, haTinir lored. 

Put.— onta amonta, about to love. 

These are veritable adjectives and take the plural J and aoc R 
irhen the construction requires it: — 

Nl estas amantiUv we are lovinsr, &c. 
They also become adverbs by chansfingr the final a to 9 »— 

amantty loving^ly* 
And nouns by cfaangini; the final a too: amantaf a lover. 

The auxiliary verb is SSU, both for the active and 

passive voices. 

This may. at first view, appear strangle ; but if we remember 
that the English and French say / hav* beefh and the Germans 
/ am been, it will be seen that there is no reason why one auxiliary 
should be preferred to another, and that there is no necessity for two. 

Esperanto haying: a distinct set of participles for the passive, is 
able to dispense with one auxiliary without impairing: its clearness. 

Table of Compound Tenses. Activb. 

Infinitive :—^sti amanta, to belo^ng; ssQ amintaf 
to have loved ; SSU amontSy to be about to love. 

Mi estaa amantay I am lovingr. 
Mi estaa amintaf I have loved. 

Ml estaa amonta, I am about to knra. 

Mi estto amanta, I was loving^. 

Mi estia amlnta, I had loved. 

Mi estto amonta, I was about to lovtb 

Mi estoe amanta, I shall be lovingr. 

Mi estos amlnta, I shall have loved. 

Mi estos amonta, I shall be about to lova. 

Mi estus amanta, I shoujd be lovingr. 

Mi estiM amlnta, I should have loved. 

Mi estus amonta, I should be about to love. 

Estu amanta, be loving. 

Estu amonta, be about to love. 

N.B.— Do not forgfet to add J if the pronoun is pIuraL If «l b 
used in the singfular, of course the part, remains sing. 

Ml sstas amlnta may be "literally translated / ««v» (in a stats of) 
kmvui£ bved, &c. 


Thb Passivb. 

The passive is formed bj the auxiliary verb estl and 
the passive participles of which there are three : — 

Prhs.— «ta amata, loved (at the present time). 
Past — Ita amita, having been loved (in the past). 
FuT. --^ta amota, about to be loved. 

Primarily adjectives, thev ma:^ become nouns in the sami 
I the active participles, and receive the adverbial endinir *» '^ ex* 

I same way 

- r ^jes. and receive the adverbial endin 

plained in the notes. 

Table of Passivb Tenses. 

iMFonnvis— Est! amata, to be loved. 

Esti amitat to have been loved. 

Esti amota, to be about to be loved. 

Mi estaa amata, I am beins: loved. 
Mi estat amIta, I have been loved. 

Mi estat amota, I am about to be loved. 

Mi estis amata, I was beings loved. 

Mi estie amIta, I had been loved. 

Mi estit amOta, I was about to be loved. 

Mi esto« amata, I shall be loved. 

Mi estM amlta« I shall have been loved. 

Mi estoe amota, I shall be about to be loved. 

Mi estus amata^ I should be being* loved. 
Mi estiM amlta« I should have been loved. 

Mi estiM amota, ' I should be about to be loved. 

Estu amata, Be loved. 

Estu amota, Be loved (at some future time). 

N.B.^Do not forget to add 1 if the pron. is plur. Ml estas amlta. 
mav be literally translated / am (m a state of) havings been loved 
and so on. 

The English prep, following: the passive verb is 
expressed by dO for the agent and per for the instru- 
ment : — 

Li estas hatita de la patro per bastono* 

Thb Days of thb Week arbx— 

I. dfmantop 2. iundep 3. mardOf 4* merlcredo^ 
5. JaOdOi 6. vendredOi 7. eabatOi 

N.B.— No capital initiale. 



•MH, to Bit (I.) hMtnil, to iastnict, to teacb. 

•Itontlv to be silent. punf, to punish. 

hIanUi, yesterday. ■unf^f ^' 

rankontl, to meet. "Wtiit dumb, mute. 

salutl, to salute, to ffraal. full, to touch. 

mofgaja, to-morrow. ■ pag»l»> looking g\»aB, mirror. 

poet mofgmu, the day after to- kara, dear, precious. 

morrow. ordoni, to order. 

vIzKI, to visit bablli, to chatter. 

kuzo, cousin. kandelOy candle. 

plazuro, pleasure. finU^f iray, fflad, naerry. 

hortote dock. dmnm, to dance. 

^ml, to fear. mortl, to die. 

donnl, to sleep. tel, to cease (I.) 

veld, to wake, to arouse (T.) petoli, to play the £do1, to be 
Mrilf to know (nerer persoos* mischievous. 

which is konl.) prO| for, on account oif owin^' 
tld{ immediately, at once. to (cause). 

tooioiM^ lesson. 

Nun mi legaa, vi legas kaj li legas; ni 6iuj iegas. 
Vi skribas, kaj la in£Buioj skribas ; ili tlu} sidas silente 
kaj skribas. Hieratt mi renkontis vian filon, kaj li gentile 
salutis min. Hodiatt estas sabato, kaj morgfatt estos 
dimando. Hieratt estis vendredo, kaj post-morgati 
estos Iwido. Antatt tri tagroj^ mi vizitis vian kuzon kaj 
mia vizito faris al li plezuron. Cu vijam trovis vian 
horlo^on ? Mi ^in ankoratt ne ser6is ; kiam mi finos^ 
mian laboron, mi servos' mian horlo^on, sed mi timas, 
ke mi ^n jam ne trovos. Kiam mi venis al li, li dormis ; 
sed mi lin vekis. Se mi estus sana, mi estus feli6a'. 
Se li scius^ ke mi estas tie 6i, li tuj venus al mi. Se 
la lemanto scius" bone sian lecionon, la instruanto lin 
ne punus. Kial vi ne respondas al mi? £u vi estas 
surda att muta ? Im for I Infano, ne tuSu la spegulon I 
Karaj infanoj, estu 6iam honestaj. Li venu', kaj mi 
pardonos al li. Ordonu al li, ke li ne babilu''. Petu 
din, ke li sendu^ al mi kandelon< Ni estu gajaj, n» 


uzu bone la' vivon, 6ar la i^vo ne estas longa. Si volas 
dancL Tiu ti urbo havas milionon da lo^antoj. La 
infano ne 6esas petoli. 

I. Thret days ago and nmilar Enirlisl^ phratea are always expressed 
in Esperanto in this way, bofor* three days, &c. 

•i Note that our prep. fMr is includ e d in the Terb, which simply 
takes the ace. 

5. This sentence should be carefully noted, as It illustrates the fact 

that Esperanto always uses the conditional in IM, where a real 
condition or supposition (that is when the fact is nonexistent) 
is implied. We should say in English, if I iM«r» well (subj.), and 
the French, if I IMM (imp.) both of which are less logical. 

4* Here again a condition is implied, so the conditional Is used instead 
of our subjunctive, ffhe knem (which he does noi), he would, &c 

i. Note the conditional in place of our pluperfect subj., again because 
the fact is not so. Solus is here to be translated knew or had 
known. But, if the learner know his lesson well, would be 86 
ta lomanto tolaa bone elan leolonon, la Instnianto tin ne punae 
or ee* The conditional mood is thus shown to have no time value 
and must be translated according to the context. 

6. This form of the imperative can only be translated by a circumlo- 

cution, let hint come, but in Esperanto any per. pron. can be used 
in this way. It is really a shortened form of dim al 11, ko II venu. 

7> Note these further examples of the imperative used to replace our 
infinitive. Order hint not to chatter. Ask her to send ma a 
candle. In one case there is an ordar^ in the other a request. 
See Note 7, Ex. 9. 

8. Note the future used here is place of our past, it is more logical 

». TUs is another instance where the defi art. is nor translated in 
Baglish. See Remark Ex. iS, 


flul, to flow. atMMll, to wait, tm expect. 

movl, to more (T.) Mivl, to save, rescue. 

•trato, street mondo, workL 

fall, to falL llnffvo, langruasre. 

pekl, to sin. B^rava, important. 

Intenol, to intend. pai e ro, sparrow. 

•en, without (privative =imX kapti, to catch. 

tovl, to lift, to raise (T.) agio, eafirle. 

l1pro6l, to reproach. f**^^. ^^^' , . , 

merltl. to merit, to deserve. komfukl, to conduct, lead. 

merltl, to merit, to deserve. _ - , . 

menaogl, to tell a lie. artttl, to arrest, to take into 

liasi, to pass a.) JS^^^' u 

ntnlam, never. "^ througrh. 

nonlu, no one, nobody. Ju^, to judsre, to try (judictally). 

Fluanta akvo estas pli pura, ol akvo staranta sen- 
move. Promenante^ sur la strato, mi falls. Kiam 
Nikodemo batas Jozefon, tiam Nikodemo estas la 
batanto* kaj Jozefo estas la batato*. Al homo, pekinta' 
senintence, Dio facile pardonas. Trovinte^ pomon, mi 
^in mantis. La faHnta' homo ne povis sin^* levi. Ne 
riprodu vian amikoa, 6ar vi mem pli multe meritas 
riprodon; li estas nur unufoja mensoginto^ dum vi 
estas ankoratt nun £iam mensoganto^. La tempo pa- 
sinta jam neniam revenos ; la tempon venontan' neniu 
ankoratt konas. Venu, ni atendas vin, Savonto^ de la 
mondo. En la ling^o „ Esperanto " ni vidas la eston- 
tan^ ling^on de la tuta mondo. AUgusto estas mia plej 
amata^® filo. Mono havata^^ estas pli g^va ol havita". 
Pasero kaptita^ estas pli bona, ol agio kaptota. La 
Boldatoj kondukis la arestitojn^' tra la stratoj. Li venis 
al mi tute ne atendite^^ Homo, kiun oni devas ju^, 
estas jug:oto^". 

t. Note the lUhrerblai form of the part. This construction is very 
common in Esperanto and is most concise and useful, but should 
only be used when the part, relates to, but does not ^uaKAff the 
oubjoot of the sentence : in other words, when the subject of both 
the principal and adverbial clauses is the same. Here the sentence 
miflrht be translated, as (or while) i 0m walking in the sh^et, l/eH 


«. Note how both the act and pats, parts, become nouns by nmj^j 
changrins: the final a into •:— TIm bMltllV ptriOll and m 

S. Ai^ectiTal, qualifying homo, the Mlbjeot beinip DIOi If adrerbial, 
it would mean God having smned^ &c 

4. See note i. ml being the subject of both clauses, the adverbial form 

is correct. But to translate the sentence, He having found an 
apple, I ate U, we could not say II trovlnto pomon, ml ^\n m«n|l8 
because each clause here has its own subject. In such a case the 
sentence must be turned :— Mam II trovis pomon, ml ^n mail£:l« 
The adverbial form being clearly not applicable. 

5. Note the past part, aotlvef where from English analogy we might 

expect the passive. This confusion arises from ue fact that 
English, in common with most languapres has only one part, 
for Doth active and passive voices. In this case the full meaning 
is : the man who has fallen,^ The idea is active not passive. 
A further reason is that ftUI is intransitive, wad no intransitive 
verb can have a passive part. 

6. This phrase cannot be translated without some circumlocution 

The past part, active ending in O shows that it is a noun and 
means a person who has liea\aX some past time^ The a4jectiva] 
form of unufoja (Uterally a one-timer) agrees with it The same 
idea might be expressed unufoje meiieOKtnta, where an adverb is 
properly used to qualify the part. 

7. The pres. part, denotes^ that the action is OOntlnuln|r at the present 

time, and this idea is included in the noun formed from it. 

8. Future part, active. ^ Note that it is treated as a true a4)> by 

agreeing in case with its noun. 

9. At first view, it might appear that this word should be in the 

ace., the same as vtiii but if the sentence is turned round, venUy 
SavontOi &c, it will be seen to be a true VOOative; which always 
has the nom. form. Another way of looking at it would be to 
regard SavontO as a predicate, or something "said about" vln, 
in which case Mil eetas would be understood. 

10. Pres. part pass, -atai implies that the action is continuing ai 
the time spoken of. 

11. Past part pass. -Ita, implies that the action has taken place at 
some prevums time, 

la. Ita, because the act is comideted. C<mipar« with havata in 
previous sentence. 

13. An example of the past part pass, converted into a noun and 
treated accordingly. 

14. Adverbial* because it refers to the subject II. 

15. Put part pass, converted into a noun. Note its conciseness in 
expressing the person about to be judged: — the accused. 

16. Note till l0Vl« This verb being transitive, requires an object. 
Instead of sin levi, levl^l (to oecome raised) might be used. 
See later, Ex. 30. In English, one form of the verb may have 
two or three senses, not so in Esperanto. 

36 EXERCISE 16. 

I ti w a r fc.— Thit exercise has been explained at lenctii becau— oft 
its importance. The proper use of the adverbial part, (thous^h rcmSfy 
simple) is sometimes a difficulty for befirinners. The following ad- 
ditional sentences may help to snow the feamer what to avoid. 

^^^eing^ tilt I cannot visii yout-^ 
VizftI Vlllf is correct for the reasons stated above ; but, being iU, iUr 
comes to see me, cannot be transited eatanto malsana U vUttrnm 
mln. because the first clause has I for subject and the second IM. 
Such an Esperanto sentence would mean m English : he being iU 
comes to visit me. The sentence must be' turned : 6ar ml ectes 
malMUia, H Vizttas mln. Similarly, the enemy having run away, nre 
entered the town, cannot be la malamlkoj forloilllrte, &c, but, poct 
Uani la malamikoj f orfcurto III Miirto Ml la iirlMNi. {Fruictier.) 

This construction must not be confounded with the "AblatiTe 
absolute" in Latin. 

Ex. 16.— Compound Tbmsbs, Activi. 

Nun li diras al mi la veron. Hieratt li dins al mi la 
Terofi. Kiam vi vidis nia en la salono, li jam antatle^ 
dins al mi la veron (att H estis dirinta al mi la veron). 
Li diros al mi la veron. Kiam vi venos^ al mi, li jam 
antaiie diros al mi la veron (ail li estos dirinta al mi la 
veron ; ail antatt ol vi venos al mi, li diros al mi la 
veron). Se mi petus* lin, li dims* al mi la veron. Mi 
ne farus' la eraron, se li antatte dims' al mi la veron 
(att se li estus dirinta al mi la veron). Kiam mi venos", 
dim al mi la veron, Kiam mia patro venos^, dim al mi 
antatte la veron (att estu dirinta al mi la veron). Mi 
volas diri al vi la veron. Mi volas, ke tio, kion^ mi 
diris, estu" vera (att mi volas esti dirinta la veron). 

1. Adverb formed from prep, by adding: •. 

s. Note the future in place of our present The idea is future. 

3. Note the conditional in both members of the sentence. I/IlmA 
atkeil him (which I did not), he WOUM have told me the truth 
(which he did not). The whole statement is imag-inary or conm 
dittonoL But, IflthOUW (or shall) ask him, he would (or will) 
tell me the truth, is a statement of foct, and is translated, M ml 
petot tin, If diroe, &c. See Note 5> Ex. 13. 

EXERCISE 16. 31 

4. Note tbe aoc. in the tul>«eiitenoe goTenied by MHt. This m a 

point that requires care. See Note 3* Ex. aa. 
$. Note the imperative with kt after a wish, to replace our infinitive. 

See Note 7, Ex. 9. 

Ex. 16.— Passivk. 


hnrttl, to invite voJ«, road, way. 
Mkvl, to follow. Ml* to act (I.) 
konstnil, to construct patftrOi priest, pastor. 
luldl, to owe. kament, fireplace, hearth. 
oro, sTold. poto, pot 
rtngo. Ting. kaldrono, kettle 
lertar skilful, clever. boll, to boil (I.) 
projekto, project, scheme, plan. bollffl, to boil (T.) 
Inlmiloro, engineer. pordo, door. 
, iron. kortOi yard, court 

Mi estas amata^ Mi estis amata. Mi estos amata. 
Mi estus amata. Estu amata. Esti amata. Vi estas 
lavita'. Vi estis lavita. Vi estos lavita. Vi estus 
lavita. Estu lavita. Esti lavita. Li estas invitota. 
Li estis invitota* Li estos invitota. Li estus invitota. 
Estu invitota. Esti invitota. La surtuto estas a6etita 
de* mi, sekve^ ^ apartenas al mi. Kiam via domo estis 
konstniata^, mia domo estis jam longe konstruita^. 
Estu trankvila, mia tuta Suldo estos pagita al vi baldatt. 
Mia ora ringo ne estus nun tiel longe ser6ata, se ^i ne 
estus" tiel lerte kadita de' vi. Latt la projekto de la 
in^enieroj tiu ti fervojo estas konstruota en la dattro de 
du jaroj ; sed mi pensas, ke ^i estos konstruata* pli ol 
trijarojn''. Honesta homo agas honeste. La pastro, 
kiu mortis antatt nelonge (att antatt nelonga tempo), 
lo^s longe en nia urbo. £u hodiaU estas varme^^ aU 
malvarme ? Sur^ la kameno inter du potoj staraslfera 
kaldrono ; el la kaldrono, en kiu sin^ trovas bolanta 
akvo, eliras vaporo ; tra la fenestro, kiu sin' trovas 
apud la pordo, la vaporo iras sur' la korton^^ 


I & s. See Notes lO and ii, Ex. 14. Mm denotes that the actioo is 
continuia^ at the pTMent time. Its that it has taken i^aoe in the 
past and is no longer in pit^r^^ess. IVhen your house twos katair 
built, n^ house had alretufy bMII built ybr a long time, 

S. De is die prep, used after the pass. part, to translate our by, except 
an instrument is specified when per is used. 

4. Note the adverb formed from the rerb MlivL This may be 

translated, UfoUows^ thertfforo or consequently, 

5. Note the conditional, when we she jld use the sulg. IfUhadnoi 

been. See Note 3, Ex. 15 and Note 5, Ex. 13. 

6. Owing to the absence in English of a special pass, part., we are 

obliged ito translate this by the act. part, which is iUogicaL 

7. Note ace. denoting duration qfiime, 

8. Note the use of Mir to translate our Ilk 

9. Note the reflexive phrase tin trovat— literally >(iufs «^//» although 

Mtat cr trmrl^as (see Ex. 30) might also be used, 
ic Note the ace. denoting motion to to place. 
II. Note the adverbial lorm in relation to the weather. . 


The Accusative of Direction. — ^When direction 
(actual or figurative) is implied, the noun, adjective and 
even adverb takes the ace. lU Klo vl estaSi where are 
you; KiMI vl IraSi whither are you going, Al, £l8 
and tra are the only prepositions which can never have 
an ace. after them, as they sufHciently indicate 
direction. Study the following exercise carefully, and 
also in this connection Ex. 19. 


tonl, to keep, to hold. fcromo, cream. 

OtartiM*, outside, without Intemo, within, inside of. 

voja^ to travel krom, besides, save, except, not 

W^O, seat, chair. 


foot * flan6o, bethrothed person, 

iui, benih. lirundo, swallow. 


motl, toputTto plaoo. S^** across. 

kanapo, sofa, couch. !52!?» u^^'i j 

muoo, mouse. ootro, chiet, l^der. 

Ilto, bed, (to lie on). ?*^?» attentive. 

•upor, over, above (without !?«»»•«»"» although. 

intact.) *£>. to doubt. 

Aoro, air. ootimi, to esteem, 

kafo, coffee. fljficj ^ . ^ 

too. tea. abomono, abomuation. 

nipMav quick, rapid. 


Kle vi estas? Mi estas en la ^ardeno. Kien< vi iras? 
Mi^iras en la ^ardenon^. La birdo flugas en la 6ambro 
(=^ estas en la 6ambro kaj flugas en ^i). La birdo 
flugas en la ^ambron^ (=£> estas ekster la 6ambro kaj 
flugas nun en ^n^). Mi voja^s en Hispanujo. Mi 
voja^as en' Hispanujon^. Mi sidas sur se^o kaj tenas 
la piedojn sur benko. Mi metis la manon sur la tablon^ 
El sub la kanapo la muso kuris sub la liton^ kaj nun ^i 
kuras sub la lito. Super* la tero sin trovas aero. 
Anstatatt kafo li donis al mi teon kun sukero^ sed sen 
kremo^ Mi staras ekster la domo, kaj li estas interne. 
En la salono estis neniu krom li kaj Ha fian6ino. La 
hirundo flugis trans la riveron^, 6ar trans la rivero sin 
trovis' aliaj hirundoj. Mi restas tie 6i latl la ordono de 
mia estro. Kiam li estis te mi, li staris tutan boron* 
apud la fenestro. Li diras, ke mi estas atenta. Li 
petasi ke mi estu^ atenta. Kvankam vi estas rita,, mi 
dubaSy 6u" vi estas feli6a. Se vi scius', kiu li estas, vi 
lin pli estimus'. Se li jam venis*®, petu lin al mi. Ho, 
Dio! kion vi faras I Ha, kiel belel^^ For de tie 6i I 
Fi, kiel abomene I^^ Nu, iru pli rapide t 

I. Note Um aoc of directton. 

s. In is here translated by to or inio. 

S. Super means above without contact, m contrasted with tlir, which 
is on, in contact. 

4. Note the nom. after the prep. But of course we should say, II 

ilonit al ml miktron. 

5. Note sin trovto in place of Mtia This is very usual. 

6. The ace of duration. 

7. Note imp. to replace our inf. after requests. See Note 7, Ex. 9. 

8. 6u for m when our If can be replaced by Whether. 

0. Note the conditional in both members of the sentence. If yon 
knoMT (which you evidently do not) who he is, you would esteem 
him. more. See Notes, Ex. 13. 

la The simple past is preferred to the compound ettas venlnta* 
Note the contraction of the concluding^ phrase : Ask him (to 
come) to me. % 

II. Note adverbial form in these expressions. See Note 4, Bx. f. 


34 EXERCISE 18, 

Bx. 18.^Thb Articlb. Compound Woro& 

Vocabulary. • 

•rtllcolo, article (rrvm.). tfmpla, simple. 

tlam, then» at that time. HgU to tie, to bind. 
Ob^tktO, object, thin«r» natter nMUko, root. 

m question. Mill, to grive out a sound (I.) 

tia, such, that kind of. Mara, clear. 

fcomprenl, to understand. poatull, to require, to demand. 
ekZMnpIo, example. exact. 

Polo, a Pole. fframatlko, pammar (sdenceX 

oportuna, convenient, handy. naoio, nation. 

neoooa, necessary. dlvorsa, diverse, vanoiw. 

pn^MOolo, preposition. gipo, ship. 

luimjjtC'to compose, put U^ SSSl'^^^^^X^m^). 

La artikolo t, la " estas uzata tiam^, kiam ni parolas 
pri personoj at! objektoj^ konataj. Gia uzado estas tia' 
sama kiel en la aliaj lingn/^oj. La personoj, kiuj ne 
komprenas la uzadon de la artikolo (ekzemple* Rusoj 
ati Poloj, kiuj ^e scias alian lin^on krom sia propra), 
povas en la unua tempo tute' ne uzi la artikolon, 6ar ^i 
estas oportuna^ sed ne necesa. Anstatati ''la" oni 
povas ankatl diri "T" (sed nur post prepozicio, kiu 
fini^as per vokalo). Vortoj kunmetitaj estas kreataj 
per simpla kunligado de vortoj ; oni prenas ordinare la 
purajn radikojn, sed, se la bonsoneco ati la klareco 
postulas, oni povas ankatl preni la tutan vorton, t. e. 
la radikon kune kun ^ia gramatika fini^o. Ekzemploj : 
skribtablo ati skribotablo (=tablo, sur kiu oni skribas) ; 
intemacia (=kiu estas inter diversaj nacioj) ; tutmonda 
( = de la tuta mondo) ; unutaga ( = kiu datiras unu tagt>n) ; 
unuataga (=kiu estas en la unua tago); vaporSipo 
(=SipO| kiu sin* movas per vaporo) ; matenman^i, 
ta^fman^i, vesperman^ii abonpago (= pago por la 


t. TtaM, Umw iktm, wh^n, h often UMd ib pUux of wAm. 

a. TtaL would be translated here by M#; use tiain •Imilar caiet wheo 
^owed by lll«L 

S. Note the adverbial form. 

4. Enflflish people are apt to ooniiise •pMtUMIf oonvenieat, handy, 

with konvona, fitting, euiUble. 

5. t •• is an abbreviation of till MtM| thai is, 

6. Note the reflexive form, analogous to ilii trovMi Note 9, Ex. 16. 

Movl^aa, cxmld also be used. See Ex. 30. 

7. ObJtlct% is used to express the English word tublMt in many 

of its senses. The Esperanto word MlbJoktO is limited to the 
9iU(;tct iff a verb, 

KMimrfc. — ^With one exception, the definite article hi is used 
as in English. This exception is that the article is used in Esperanto 
to show that the noun expresses the total of the beings or things 
it represents, which is the reverse of the English custom : — La homo 
•ttas mortema^ man is mortal (all men). La rellglo ostao res- 
poktlnihlt religion it worthy of respect (aul religion, in the widest 
sense of the word). La mfanoj estas kredemali children are 
credulous (all children, children as a class). La tlmloj ettat tro 
bnltomalf monkeys are very imitati've (all monkeys). La medloino 
MtM ooienoo, kiU la pentrado ottas arto, medicine (as a whole) 
is a science, and painting (as a whole) is an art. La hajlo OStas 
tro mallltlla al hi Vinboro, hail (all hail) is very hurtful to the grape. 
(as a whole). But we should say Hl^lo falao, hail falls (not the 
whole hail, but only a part of it). See De Beaufront's 
*' Commentaire." 

The usage with reqpect to countries and proper names is the 
•aoM as in English. 

Kx. 19.~Prbpositions and the Accusative of 


namlnatlyD, nomhiative. h^ of some kind 

hun, at some time, ever. voturli to travel, to journey (by 

akuzatlvOi accusative. vehicle). 

tlo, there. dio, has a distributive force, not 

do^ondl do, to depend on. also a negative meaning as in 

kauzo, cause, reason. English. 

ooprlitil, to express. flanko, side. 

dtrokti, direct. dokstra, right-hand. 

OOll, to aim. nonM, nohow, in no way. 

fliil, to finish (I.) nok—nok, neither— nor. 

equal, allko. 


Ciuj prepozicioj per si mem postulas 6iam aiir U 
nominativoa Se ni iam post prepozido, uzas la 
akuzativon, la akuzativo tie dependas ne de la prepo- 
zicio, sed de aliaj kattzoj. Ekzemple: por esprimi 
direkton^i ni aldonas al la vorto la finon^ " n " ; sekve • 
tie (sen tiu loko), tien (=al tiu loko) ; tiel same^ ni 
ankati diras : "la birdo flugis en la ^ardenon, sur la 
tablon/' kaj la vortoj *'^ardenon," **tablon/' staras tie 
6i en akuzativo ne 6ar la prepozicioj " en " kaj " sur " 
tion 6i postulasi sed nur 6ar ni volis esprimi direkton» 
t. e. montrii ke la birdo sin ne trovis antatie en la 
^ardeno att sur la tablo kaj tie flugis, sed ke ^ de alia 
loko flugis al la ^rdeno, al la tablo (ni volas montrit 
ke la ^ardeno kaj tablo ne estis la loko de la flugado, 
sed nur la celo de la flugado) ; en tiaj okazoj ni uzus 
la fini^on "n " tute egale" tu ia prepozicio starus att ne. 
Morgatt mi veturos Parizon (att en Parizon). Mi restos 
hodiatt dome. Jam estas tempo iri domen. Ni disi^s* 
kaj iris en diversajn flankojn ; mi iris dekstren, kaj li 
iris maldekstren. Flanken, sinjorol Mi konas neniun 
en tiu 6i urbo. Mi neniel povas kompreni, kion vi 
parolas. Mi renkontis nek lin, nek lian firaton (att aii 
ne rekontis lin, nek lian fraton). 

1. Note tlie noun fonned from the rerb by dbaoigiag I into t. 

•. Compare this with tia Muna in the previoiis Ex. There* both are 
adjectives, in tiel MUnt and tute egale we have two adverbe. 

3. Note the reflexive force ol Ul* This will be more fiilly explained 
later in Ex. 30. 

■eniMic.— The universal ajpplication of final n to express direcHom 
b peculiar to Esperanto and is extremely useful and precise. It caa 
haxiUy be called an accusative when applied to adverbs as in this Ex. 
Sm mUo Table of some Eni^lisb Prepositions p. 96, 


Kx. 20.— Thb Preposition Je and thb Accusativb. 

•MiOOy sense, m^tung, Mpirt, to sigh ffofi loner for 

kOMHina, common. rvgulo, rule. 

ebia, possible. verfio, verb. 

ofto, often. Obel, to obey. 

rldli to lauffh. permatl« to allow, to permit 

, last 

Se ni bezonas uzi prepozicion kaj la senco ne montras 
al ni, kian prepozicion uzi| tiam ni povas uzi la komunan 
prepozicion ''je." Sed estas bone uzadi^ la vorton 
** je ** kiel eble plej malofte". Anstatatt la vorto " je " ni 
povas ankatt uzi akuzativon sen prepozicio. Mi ridas 
je lia naiveco (au mi ridas pro lia naiveco, att : mi ndas 
lian naivecon). Je la lasta fojo mi vidas lin to vi (att : 
la lastan fojon). Mi veturis' du tagojn^ kaj unu nokton^ 
Mi sopiras je mia perdita feli6o (att : mian perditan 
felidon). El la dirita regulo sekvas, ke se ni pri ia 
verbo ne scias, 6u ^\ postulas post si la akuzativon 
(t e. 6u ^ estas aktiva)" att ne, ni povas 6iam uzi la 
akuzativon. Ekzemple, ni povas din <' obei al la patro " 
kaj "obei la patron" (anstatatt *'obei je la patro"). 
Sed ni ne uzas la akuzativon tiam% kiam la klareco de 
la senco tion 6i malpermesas ; ekzemple : ni povas diri 
'' pardoni al la malamiko " kaj ** pardoni la malamikon," 
sed ni devas diri 6iam ''pardoni al la malamiko lian 

I. Note the efFect of the suffix -ad, marking the continuation of an 
action. This will be more fully treated later. Ex. 32. 

s. This construction is different from ours. We say at toon at 
pottlblt. Esperanto says» at possibly mott toon, klol obit pl^ 
baldaii and so on. 

3. Voturi means to travel by means of a vehicle, carriage, rail, boat, 

&C. Voja^^l expresses the simple idea of travdling. 

4. Note the ace of duraium^/br two days, duriftg one mgfU, 

5. Note 1, Ex. 18. 

6. A tnuisttiTt verU 



The student Is advised to tabulate the following 

words thus : — 

I. — Write the first nine words vertically, with the 
English translations under each. 

2. — ^Write each modification given, to the right of 

All the words in the first line will end taf those in the second im 
tal, Sec, Learn this taUe bv heart and one-half of the Esperanto 
lanpiage will be mastered. (See pp. 40 and 41.) 


taf some kind ol ... 

lal, for some cause or reason. advertoOy sidverb. 

Mun, at some ttme, ever. Htero, letter (of the alphabet^ 

le. somewhere. rilatl, to relate to. 

M, in some manner, somehow. prefikto, prefix. 

lee* someone's. mJUt ever. 

lo, something:. dlferenol, to differ, be different 

lohi, somewhat, some quantitf, from 

III, someone. iMlplf to neii 

fconslll, to advise, to counsel MiflkM, sutt 

la, lal, lam, le, lei, les, lo, lom, lu. La montritajn 

natl vortojn ni konsilas bone ellemi, 6ar el^ ili 6iu povas 
iam fari al si' grandan serion da' aliaj pronomoj kaj 
adverboj. Se ni aldonas la literon ''t," ni ricevas 
vortojn montrajn: tia, tial, tlam, tie, tiel, ties, tie, 
tiom, till. Se ni aldonas^ al ili la literon "k," ni ricevas 
vortojn demandajn atl rilatajn : kia, lllai, Iclam, kie, 
kiei, kies, kiO, Mom, kiu. Aldonante la literon ^'6," 
ni ricevas vortojn komunajn : dia, dial, diam, 6lS, 6lel, 
Oiee, diO, 6lOm, 6lu. Aldonante la prefikson "nen," 
ni ricevas vortojn neajn : nenla, nofilal, nenlam, nenie, 
neniel, nenles, nento, neniom, nenlu. Aldonante al la 
vortoj montraj la vorton "61," ni ricevas montron pli 
proksiman; ekzemple: tiu (pli malproksima), till ^ 

^ EXERCISE 21. 39 

(aii Al tlu) (pli proksima) ; tie (malproksime), tie Al atl 
Al tie (proksime). Aldonante al la vortoj demandaj la 
vorton ''ijn," ni ricevas vortojn sendiferencajn : Ida 
a|n, Mai alni Mam ajn, Me alHi Idel alni Mee alni Mo 
ajn, Mom a|n| Mu ajn. Ekster tio» el la diritaj vortoj 
ni povas ankoratl fari aliajn vortojn, per helpo de 
gramatikaj fini^oj kaj aliaj vortoj (sufiksoj) ; ekzemple : 
tlama, dlama, Moma, tiea, di-tleay tieulo, tiamulo, 

k. t. p. (=kaj tiel plu). 

I. El« The primary meaningf ia oui o/,/rwn among; elVSIll, io comt 
out, &c. As a prefix it also has the meaning of thoroughness oi 
completion ; •llemi therefore means, to learn thorough^, 

9, Note the use of al •! after f arl. 

3. Note the use of da instead of da after Mfla used collectively. 

4. Note the use of al as a prefix and its immediate repetition as a 

prepoution. This practice is general in Esperanto and should be 
followed for the sake of clearness. 

DIStinflrulall between words ending in la which express the 
idea of quality ; and those in lu which express Individuality only. 
Kialn pkimojn vl havas 7 fVhat kind of^ens have you ? Uen actaa 
du rozoj, kiun vi deziraa? Here are two roses, whioh do you 

Extension op the Correlatives Tabulated 
ON THE Next Page. 

By adding to the damonstatiVM the word <*6lf" we obtain a 
sense of greater proximity : Ex. tlu, that one; tlu 6I (or 6I tlu)i this 
one. Tie, there; tie 6I (or 6I tit), here. 

By adding to the InteiTOffatlVM the word "ajn," we obtain 
Sndefliilta expressions : Ex. Ida alRi whatever kind of; klal aln,/or 
whatever reason; kiam al**! whenever; kit aJn* wherever; kiei aJltf 
however, in whatever manner; kles aJti whose soever; klO B\n, 
whatever; Mom alXf however much # kiu alXf whoever, who-soever. 

Besides that, from the said words, we can make additional words 
with the help of grammatical terminations and suffixes. Ex. tlamat 
of that time; dlama, of all ttme; kloma, what number or quantity 
(adj.) ; tlea, of that place ; 6i-tlea, of this place ; tieulo, an inhabitant 
<if thai place ; tIamulOf a contemporary; k.t.p., and so on. 








that (audi) kind of 



for some reaMo 


for that (such) reason 
therefore, so 



at KMne tiina, 


at that (such) tima 








in lotne maaiiMr 


in that (such) mannar 
so, as 





that one's 
such a one's 







that thing 



some quantity 


so / much 

(Ptrton or Thing). 





i^nl^^lJ^T^'J^^^ J^ denaonstrative is followed by the 




what kind of 
what a.. ..1 


for what reason 


at what time 




k what manner 



what thinir 


which (after iio) 





for every reason 

for all time 



in every manner 

each one's 
every one's 


what (a) quantity 

how much, many 

as (after tiom) 




that ireL ^rou.) 




no kind of 
no such 


for no reason 


at no time 


in no manner 



the whole quantity 


every one 

each one 


no quantity 

no one 

Note also the following: iia u»ado estas Hm samot «•*••••• 
where two correlatives from two diflferent categories are used to- 


Ex. 22.— Adjbctivbs and Adverbs, contrastkd 

humoro, humour temper. bastono. stkk. 

Insultl, to insult, to be abuuTe, tngmmvn, roof. 
to scold. funto, pound (weight ft stariingX 

1i to shut. fcoloro, colour. 

miftn, above, 
toiero, plate. 
kMto, chest, bos. 
Hpo/Sp. . 

korpo, bodv. Miprt, above. 


anlmo, souL to ter o , plate. 

kentrakto, contract taro, earth. 

•um. This suffix has no definite ^ 

meaning, and receives various 

renderings easily suggested by hiurb, hair. 

the context and the meaning o£ ffrlza, grey. 

the root to which it is joined. vangB^ dieek. \ 

plenumli to fulfil, to accomplish. jporti, to carry, to wear, 

brull, to bum (I,) mipervesto, gown (college). 

llflrnOf wood. tolerof orma oapelo, plate shaped 

matMialO, material, matter. hat, " mortar board." 

Lia kolero" longe daiiris. Li estis hodiatt en kolera* 
humoro. Li koleras" kaj insultas. Li fermis kolere* la 
pordon. Lia filo mortis'' kaj estas nun malviva. La 
korpo estas morta', la animo estas senmorta. Li estas 
morte" malsana, li ne vivos pli, ol unu tagon^^. Li 
parolas, kaj lia parolo fluas dol6e kaj agrable. Ni fans 
la kontrakton ne skribe, sed parole. Li estas bona 
parolanto. Starante^ ekstere, li povis vidi nur la ek- 
steran flankon de nia domo. Li lo^as ekster la urbo. 
La ekstero de tiu ti homo estas pli bona, ol lia^ intemo. 
Li tuj faris, kion' mi volis, kaj mi dankis lin por la tuja^ 
plenumo de mia deziro. Kia granda brulo' ! kio brulas"? 
Ligno estas bona brula^ materialo. La fera bastono, 
kiu kuSis en la fomo, estas nun brule' varmega^ Cu li 
donis al vi jesan^ respondon att nean' ? Li eliris el' la 
dormo6ambro kaj eniris en' la man^o6ambron. La 
birdo ne forflug^s : ^i nur deflugis de* la arbo, alflugis 
al' la domo kaj surflug^s sur' la tegmenton. Lemo- 
Ubron' oni devas ne tralegi, sed tralemi, Li portas 

EXERCISE 22. 43 

roxokoloran superveston kaj teleroforman dapelon. En 
mia skribotablo sin trovas kvar tirkestoj^*. Liaj lipharoj 
estas pli s^rizaj, ol liaj vangharcj. 

I. Adverbial form, b«cauM it r«for* to the rabject JL 

a. Lte not •!« because Ha IntMlM is the sulgect of the yvcb Mtat 

S. This illustrates an important point in the use of the relative 
pronouns, which often puzzles beginners. Our What must be 
resolved into its original form of thai which. These two members 
may be in the same case» but they may not : thai being governed 
by the preceding verb, and whtch by the followin|r oo»* Four 
instances may occur :— 

(a) LakaiitadOMtat(tlo),kloplatMalniL 

singing is what (that which) pleases ma» 

(b) U farit (tlon), klon ml valla. 

he did who* (that which) / wished, 

(c) La porno Mtit tlo, Mon ml trovto. 

the apple was what (that which) Ifoumd, 

(d) Ml amat tlon, Mo ootat bona. 

/ lame what (that which) is good. 

When the two members are in the same case (a & b) the first nuxy 
be omitted, althoug^h beginners are advised to write both. When the 
two members are in different cases, both must be expressed. The 
other relatives till and tia are treated in precisely the same way. It is 
customary to place a comma between the two members, and before 
the last, if the first be omitted. 

4. Note the a4i> formed from the adv. ti^. 

j. Note a noun, verb, adj. and adv. all from the same coot, by simple 
alteration of the ending. 

6. Suffix -Off denotes the hiflrhest degree of intensity— fturpim^ hot. 

I. Note the a4iective8 formed from JOi and IM. 

8. Note the repetition of the prep, used as prefix. 

9* Note the forceful effect of oommeocincr with the oY^tcX^ which is of 
course in the aoc 

10. Literally, draw^xes, 

II, Note the ace. of dttratttm. 

44 EXERCISE 28. 

EX. 2S.— Suffix tat^ Preposition dlL 
The suffix let denotes a person following a given 
profession or occupation : — bOtO^ boot; bOtlStOy boot" 
maker, Kuraoly to treat (as a doctor); kuraoittO^ 
a doctor. KOHMTOlf to trade ; fcOBIT Olrt O, a tradesman^ 

Da is used in place of tfa to expreM number, weight 
or measure. 


iMitrtk theatre. ^nm, doth, 

manlaro, manner. alsnlfl, to siffnify, to meaa. 

okupl, occupy (T.) TSlI^L w. u 

mehanHco, mechanict. iSSS' *^**' ^'^ 

fiemlo, chemistry. SmSn'^nwi «•— 

diplomatlo,.diplo«acy SSSt^S^ir^ 

fiziko, phywcs (soence). huida, land, country, 

•olanoo, science. wferl, to suffer. 

fflaaOt a glaiam, luUbaro, ndgrhbour. 

lllgn^ black. mezurl, to measure (T.) 

Teatramanto ofte vizitas la teatron kaj ricevas i>aldail 
teatrajn manierojn. Kiu okupas sin je^ menaniko, estaa 
mefianikistOi kaj kiu okupas sin je^ fiemio, esta& 
fiemiisto. Diplomatiiston' oni povas ankati nomi diplo- 
mato, sed fizikiston oni ne povas nomi fiziko, 6ar fiziko 
estas la nomo de la science mem. La fotografisto 
fotografis min, kaj mi sendis mian fotografajon al mia 
patro. Por 6iu a6etita fimto da teo, tiu ti komercisto 
aldonas senpage funton da sukero. Glaso dO vino estas 
glaso, en kiu antatie sin trovis vino, at! kiun oni uzas 
-por vino ; glaso da vino estas glaso plena je vino. 
Alportu al mi metroti da nigra drapo (metro dO drapo 
signifus matron, kiu kuSis sur drapo, atl kiu estas uzata 
por drapo). Mi a6etis dekduon da ovoj. Tiu 6i rivero 
havas ducent kilometrojn da longo. Sur la bordo de la 
maro staris amaso da homoj. Multaj birdoj flugas en 

EXERCISE 28. 45 

la atttuno en pli varmajn landojn. Sur la arbo sin trovis 
multe (att multo) da birdoj. Kelkaj homoj sentas sin la 
plej feli^aj, kiam ili vidas la suferojn de siai' najbaroj. 
En la 6ambro sidis nur kelke da homoj. ** Da " post la 
vorto montras, ke tiu 6i vorto havas signifon de mezuro 

I. Note the use of the indefinite preposition Ja, differently translated 
in each languaee. 

a. This sentence illustrates th^ use of the nom. to express what 
is dedicated or aaUi about any person or thing:. Dlploma- 
tiUiton, is the direct okject of nomi and is therefore in the ace. ; 
but dlptomato is the name given him, it is what is predicated 
or aaUi alKNit him, and is therefore in the nom. See Remark, 
Ex. 33. 

S. Note fial, not lUU* as it refers to the subject IIL 

Ex. 24.— SuFFEc mal (contraries), In (feminine). 

FemlnlnM are formed from masculine nouns by 
adding In to the root : — 

patro (father. patrino, mother. 

onklo, unde. onkllno, aunt. 

knabo, boy. knablnoi a girl 

bovo, ox. bovino, cow. 

&c., &c. 
Contraries are formed by prefixing mal, by which a 
whole series of new words can be made : — 

bona, good. malbona, evil, bad. 

amlko, friend. malamlko, enemy. 

mipro, above. malsupro, below. 

pomioel* to permit. malpermetl, to forbid. 
&c., &c. 
Note that mat expresses the diroot opposite, 
without any idea of badness. 


kfMkl, to now, to mcrease (I.) kredl, to believe. 

mezo, middle. renversi, to upset 

dlka, thick, fat, stout, big. montOi mountain. 

huta, broad. !«I"P»» ^^ 

himl, to shine, to give out light. "©«•» cock. 

mola, soft. n«POt grandson. 

turmentl, to torment ■)•*•» nei>hew. 

Mfltl, to feel (T.) bo, relation by marriage, 

bMilT to bless. bopaWno, mother-m-law. 

noMa, noble. duonpatro, stepfather. 

rokta, straight. •»«>• ox- 

" ^ , cunSd. aonovo, again. 

46 EXERCISE 24. 

Mia frato na estas gpranda, led li om estas ankafi 
malgranda^ : li estas de meza kresko. Li estas tiel* 
dika, ke" li ne povas train tra' nia mallar^ pordo. 
Haro estas tre maldika. La nokto estis tiel^ malluma, 
ke^ ni nenion povis vidi e£ antati nia nazo. Tiu tl 
malfreSa pano estas malmola, kiel Stono. Malbonaj 
infanoj amas turmenti bestojn. Li sentis sin Ael 
malfeli6ay ke li malbenis la tagon, en kiu li estis naskita. 
Mi forte malestimas tiun 6i malnoblan homon. La 
fenestro longe estis nefermita^; mi ^ fermis, sed mia 
frato tuj ^n denove malfermis. Rekta vojo estas pli 
mallong-a, ol kurba'. La tablo staras malrekte kaj 
kredeble baldatt renversi^s'. Li staras supre sur la 
monto kaj rigardas malsupren^ sur la kampon^ Mala- 
miko venis en nian landon^ Oni tiel malhelpis al mi, ke 
mi malbonigis mian tutan laboron. La edzino de mia 
patro estas mia patrino kaj la avino de miaj infanoj. 
Sur' la korto staras koko kun tri kokinoj. Mia fratino 
estas tre bela knabino. Mia onklino estas bona virino. 
Mi vidis vian avinon kun Siaj^ kvar nepinoj kaj kun mia 
nevino. Lia duonpatrino estas mia bofratino. Mi 
havas bovon kaj bovinon. La juna vidvino fari^s^ 
denove fian^ino. 

t. This b an ezerdse illustrating: the use of the prefix llial, which 

expresses the direct opposite of the word to which it is prefixed. 

Nt is also used to qualify words, but the effect is quite different. 

Negranda is not large, mal^rranfla is small, &c. NtfMiiilta, 

not having been closed, i.e., lyar, 
a. Note repetition of prep. 
S. Note the noun understood. 

4. Note the ace. of direction. 

5. Note sur when we should use m, 

6. Not sllUf because it does not refer to the subject. 

7. Note e£Fect of 1^ ; ful, to make; HriH, to become; rswvtn li li^ 

will become upset. See Ex. 30. 
a Note the use of ttoL.kS, to translate our 9»»»,Jhai, 

EXERCISE 26. 47 

Cx 25.— Suffix -II (instrument), 
-ar (collective). 

The suffix -H denotes an instrument : — kombli to 
lotnb; kombilO, a comb; kudriy to sew, kudrllO, a 
needle; fOSi, to dig; fOSiiO, a spade, &c. 

•ar denotes a collection. — arbOy a tree; arbaro, a 
forest; vortO, a word; vortaro, a dictionary ; 6ipO, 
a ship: §lparO| a fleet, &c. 


vtando, meat, flesh. sablo, sand. 

■oio. nocket. sorbl, to absorb, suck up. 

GrkC^k/ b«-«»<«Ol brandy. 

tlli, to draw, pull. t"»f»i P^ece of finen, a doth. 

mllltl, to wage war, to fight. 

\^-{^ ^x^f "**• bravi brave, valiakt. 

totelo, bottfe. H^tJ st^ ; 

*-- to lock. 1^ ^^ 

**> <^^*»- Hlspano, a Spaniard. 

'.Sir^f '• Cermano, a 6erman. 

|«tt^ skate, to gbde. tamen, however, nevertheless. 

vtterOf weather. hArhn o-raQs 

haw, to hew, to chop. «!S?'^r * . r«^ 

Mffl tosaw pasti, to pasture, to feed 
foS.' to dig. ' animals (T.) 

' to sew. bruto, brute, beast, cattle. 

tondl, to clip, to shear. a^«f herd, collection. 

•onorl, to give out a musical precipe, particularly. 

sound (as a beU), (I.) •ano» wool. 

fam, to whisUe. taf 0, sheep. 

biko, ink. 

La tranSilo* estis tiel malakra, ke mi ne povis tranSi 
per ^i la viandon, kaj mi devis uzi mian poSan trancilon. 
Cu vi havas korktirilon^, por mal^topi la botelon ? Mi 
volis Slosi la pordon, sed mi perdis la Slosilon. §i 
kombas al si* la harojn per arg:enta kombilo. En 
somero, ni veturas per diversaj veturiloj, kaj en vintro 
ni veturas per g-litveturilo. Hodiad estas bela frosta 
vetero, tial mi prenos miajn glitilojn kaj ires gliti. Per* 
hakilo ni hakas, per segilo ni seg-as, per fosilo ni fosas, 
per kudrilo ni kudras, per tondilo ni tondas, per 
sonorilo ni sonoras, per fajfilo ni fajfas. Mia 
tkribilaro*^ konsistas el inkujo, sablujo, kelke da 

48 EXERCISE 28. 

plumoj, krajono kaj inksorbilo',. Oni metis antatt ml 

man^ilaron^, kiu konsistis el telero, kulero, tranfiilo, 

forko, gflaseto* por brando, g\aao por vino kaj telertuk- 

eto.' En varmega tago mi amas prbmeni en arbaro. 

Nia lando venkos, 6ar nia militistaro estas granda kaj 

brava. Sur knita Stuparo li levis sin al la tegmento de 

la domo. Mi ne scias la lingvon hispanan', sed per 

helpo de vortaro hispana-germana mi tamen komprenis 

iom vian leteron. Sur tiuj 6i vastaj kaj herbori6aj 

kampoj paStas sin grandaj bmtarcjj, precipe aroj da 

bellanaj Safoj. 

I. TTancli to cut; -llOf an instmmenti — a cutting toolt a in^/k, 
s. This word is compounded of three roots, kttni, Vr, IL ^ 

3. Slajn harojn mig^ht also be iised, but is not so cjcpresstrs. 

4. Note per to denote the instnumeMi, 

5. This word is made from the root 9Mk, tiie suffix i| mmit utfttmMmi , 

and the suffix ar, a coUecHom, 

6. Similar to a. 

7. Similar to 5. 

8. Note diminutive et. 

9. Adjectives do not tak« capital initials. This b abo the uaace ol 

many foreign laneuac^es. 
ID. See Ex. 3a for explanation of suffix -nJei 

Ex. 26.— Suffix -«I (concrbtb) : -M (abstract). 

The suffix -a] denotes something mads from or 
having the quality of an Adj. or Noun : — beta, beau^ 
ttful; belajo, a heautifiil thing; SUkerOy sugar; 
8Ukera]0y samethiTtg mtide from sugar^ a nttet, OVOy 
on ^gg : OVa)0| an omelette^ 8tc 

Dr. P. Rodet points out in his *' FamOles de Mots" that when the 
the suffix -aj is immediately joined to a root capable of being: em- 
ployed as a y%rh, it forms a word expressing- ** the thing; the o^/eci 
resulting /rom the action specified by the root". In this case it has 
the force of a passive participle and is equivalent to -Ital (that 
which has been . . .ged), or to -ata) (that which is ... .ed) and nudi 
more rarely to -Otaj (that which will be ... .ed). Ex. : — 

bnilajOy a combustible (that which has been, ist orwiObehsmt) 
trinkajo, a beverage (that which has been^ is, or wHl be drtttti). 
Mnda}(^ a consigment (that which has been, ist or will be aent). 
From the foregoing, it results that -aJ being- a passive, "W^^iM 
never be united to a word terminating with the suffix -1^, which as bf 
nature intratuitive, and intransitive verbs cannot be passiv*. 

EXERCISE 26. 49 

Wheii it is desired to express a concrete idea with the sense oi 
acticm, it u necessary to make use of the present participle with the 
addition of -a]^ Le.t to end the word with -ailtaji Ex. 
•Ohrt. to dissolve. 

•OlvajOy a solution (thai which is dissolved), 
•olvantaJOy a solvent (thai which dissolves). 
Avoid the use of -lio, in cases of this kind, for the word so 
obtained would have ^uite a different sigiiification. Ex. : 
dormlgmntalo, is a substance causing^ sleep, an ofiate* 
dormlg'IIOi is a mediod of causing^ sleep like rocktt^. 

The above contain some useful hints for students in tramine new 
words, although i^ood authors sometimes use words like nutrajD for 
nourishment^ mstead of the more exact nutnuitajo. 

Note that the idea expressed by a]0 is concrete, as 
disting-uished from the euffix -eCy which expresses 
abstract ideas :~bela, beautiful; beleco. beauty, 
amikO, friend; ailllkeCO| friendship, eaja, wise; 
•a^eCMIi wisdom^ Sic 


^,j shirt. 

konfltli to preserve with kolOi neck. 

sugar. oetero. rest, remainder, 

fluida, fluid, liquid. tolo, hnen. 

suapeictl, to suspect STlaolo, ice. 

Mrida, sour, add. f randl, to like dainties. 

VInafiTOi vinegar. heroo, hero. 

SulfurOi sulphur. plafil, to be pleasing to. 

azoto, nitrogen. laffO, lake. 

ffutto. taste. kovrl, to cover. 

alta, high, toll. ,«g.| to swim, float (I.) 

paM, to pack, put up. folio, leaf. 

Vi parolas sensencajon, mia amiko. Mi trinkis teon 
kun kuko kaj konfitajo^. Akvo estas fluidajo. Mi ne 
volis trinki la vinon, 6ar ^i enhavis en si ian suspektan 
malklarajon. Sur la tablo staris' diversaj sukera}oj. 
En tiuj 6i boteletoj sin trovas diversaj acidoj' : vinagro, 
sulfuracido, azotacido kaj aliaj. Via vino estas nur ia 
abomena acidajo, La acideco de tiu 6i vinagro estas 
tre malforta. Mi mangis bongustan ova]on. Tiu 6i 
granda altajo ne estas natura monto. La alteco de tiu 
monto ne estas tre granda. Kiam mi ien^ veturas, mi 
neniam prenas kun mi multon da paka^o'. Cemiz^n, 
koiumojn, manumojn kaj ceterajn similajn objektojn^ni 
I tola}Of kvankam, ili ne 6iam estas faritaj el^tolo. 

so EXERCISE 26. 

Tin 61 komercajo estas 6iam volonte adeUta da mi. 
Glaciajo estas dolda glaciigita frandajo. La rideco 
de tiu 6i homo estas gfranda, sed lia malsa^eco estas 
ankoraii pli granda. Li amas tiun 6i knabinon pro 
dia beleco kaj boneco. Lia heroeco tre pla6is al mi. 
La tuta supra}o de la lago estis kovrita per nagantaj 
folioj kaj diversaj aliaj kreska}oj. Mi vivas kmi li 
en granda amikeco. 

I. Note that talkO and konfftajo are in nom. because they are pre- 
ceded by the prep, kun. One does not drmk these artides as 
one drinks tea, which beins^ the direot objMt of the verb is in 
the ace 

a. Note the .use of ttarl« instead of Mtto. This verb is tntransttiTe 
and is followed by the nom. If the sentence is reversed* Wlto- 
nubJ will be seen to be the subject. 

S. A similar remark applies here; note, howwwi tiiat tUk is in th« 
ace betni: the direot objMt Of tl'PW— ■ 

4. Note the ace. to indicate tflrtotlon. 

5. Much lugrm, Multo da iMkaJoJ, or muttiUii pakajojn would 

have a sui^tly different meaning^. 

6. These words appear in the accusative because they are the direct 

objects of the verb, but tolalo is nom. because it is what ia 
predicated {fiajidi about) them. Note s, Ex. S3, and Remark Ex. 33. 

7. n, o«^ ^ not dtii 

Ex. 27.— Prefix ga- (union of the sexes), 

bo- (relationship by biarriage), 

Suffix -Id (descendant). 

The proffix fire- unites both sexes ;—patro, y!iM^ ; 
SrepatroJ, parents (father and mother). maStrOy masUr; 
iTOmastroJi master and mistress. 

The prefix bo- denotes relationship by marriagfe, 
like the French ^aM.-— patro, father; bopafo^ 
father-in-law^ &c. 

The suffix -Id denotes a descendant : — IllindO, dog; 
hundMOp puppy: rat:o, king; roftkkv son of a king, 
prince, &C. 



fratuHi to congfratulAto. kunuMUio, a cure (ooune of 

■ItarOi altar. treatment). 

panmoo, relation. tS^S^Ju^ol^^ *^^' 

kuraol, to treat (as a doctor) Cebrvo, a Hebrew, Jew. 

not to Mol wnidi is MUl^ demUOi a horse. 

Patro kaj patrino kune estas nomataj^ g^epatroj. 
Petro, Anno kaj Elizabeto estas miaj gefratoj. Gesin- 
joroj N. hodiati vespere venos al ni. Mi gratulis tele- 
grafe la junajn geedzojn. La gefian6oj starts apud la 
altaro. La patro de mia edzino estas mia bopatro, mi 
estas lia bofilo, kaj mia patro estas la bopatro de 
mia edzino. Ciuj parencoj de mia edzino estas miaj 
boparencoj, sekve Sia frato estas mia bofrato, Sia 
fratino estas mia bofratino; mia frato kaj fratino 
(gefratoj) estas la bogefratoj^ de mia edzino. La edzino 
de mia nevo kaj la nevino de mia edzino estas miaj 
bonevinoj. Virino, kiu kuracas, estas kuracistino' ; 
edzino de kuracisto estas kuracistedzino^. La doktor- 
edzino A. vizitis hodiati la gedoktorojn P. Li ne estas 
lavisto, 11 estas lavistinedzo^ La filoj, nepoj kaj prane- 
poj de re^o estas re^idoj. La Hebreoj estas Izraelidoj, 
6ar ill devenas de Izraelo. ^evalido estas nematura 
6evalo, kokido — nematura koko, bovido — nematura 
bovo, birdido — nematura birdo. 

I. ata not Ita, because the statement refers to the present ttme^-io 
£act to ail time. 

•. Note the double prefix b9 and gti 

S* Note the double sufliz lit and In. 

4< This word is analysed kurao-tot-Mlz-liL 

S* This word Is analysed ttw-lrt In Wtx 


Ex. 28.— Suffix -an (member), -Mtr (cHnr) 
-III (person). 

The suffix -an denotes a member, inhabitant or 
adherent : — 6ipO| ship ; fti|iailO| sailor. irtOy toTvn^ city; 
urbano, citiMen. Mubo, clia; Miibano^ mtmber of 

a clubf &C. 

The suffix -Mtr denotes a chief or leader ! i lp o, 
ship; §ipe8tro, captain, rofiTnOp state; rsirnestro^ 

chief of statCy sovereign^ &c. 

The suffix -Ul denotes a person having* a particular 
quality : — ri6af rich ; ridulOf a rich man, JUIKI| young ; 
JunuiOy a yout^ man, avaray avaricious; avaniiO^ a 
miser, &c. 


rBgno, kingdom* state. raUgt^rdigloii. 

vila^o, village. Cfl"???* *««*°'«^ 

provlnoo, provinoa. J***» ''o*^ 

•overa, severe. MO, shoe. 

Jutta, just, rigbteoui, laal, to let. 

polico, police (force). droni, to drown, sink (I.) 

•ufl6e, enough, suflBdently. ''••*•» ^ ^<^ (literary). 

KrlstO, Christ. ed, even. 

FranoOy a Frenchman. ombrd, shadow. 
konf esl, to confess (to profess a pra^ to pray. 

La Sipanoj devas obei la dipestron. ^ Ciuj lo^antoj de 
regno estas regnanoj. Urbanoj estas ordinare pli ruzaj, 
ol vila^anoj. La regnestro de nia lando estas bona kaj 
sa^a re^o. La Parizanoj estas gajaj homoj.' Nia 
provincestro estas severa, sed justa. Nia urbo havas 
bonajn policanojn, sed ne sufi6e energ^ian policestron. 
Luteranoj kaj Kalvinanoj estas kristanoj. Germanoj kaj 
Francoj, kiuj lo^as en Rusujo, estas Rusujanoj, kvan- 
kam ili ne estas Rusoj. Li estas nelerta' kaj naiva 
provincano. La lo^antoj de unu regno estas samreg^- 
nanojS la lo^antoj de unu urbo estas samurbanoj, la 
konfesantoj de unu religio estas samreligianoj. Nia 


regimentestro estas por tiaj soldatoj kiel bona patro. 
La botisto faras botojn kaj Suojn. La lignisto vendas 
lignon, kaj la lignajisto' faras tablojn, se^ojn kaj aliajn 
lignajn objektojn. Steliston neniu lasas en sian domon'. 
La kura^a maristo dronis en la maro. Verkisto verkas 
librojn, kaj skribisto simple transskribas'' paperojn. Ni 
havas diversajn servantojn : kuiriston, ^ambristinon, 
infanistinon kaj veturigiston. La ri6ulo havas multe da 
mono. Malsa^lon 6iu batas. Timulo timas et sian 
propran ombron. Li estas mensogisto kaj malnoblulo. 

I. Or al la llpMtro. In the next sentence note that there ia no 
article after 6IhJ, as in English. 

•. Note that homoj includes women, people grenerally. 

3. This is a less strong expression than maltorta. 

4. 8am from aaum, the same^ is a useful prefix. teinldMUloJi 

persons mho are possessed with the same idea, 

5. Note double suffix a) and Ist, strictly, a joiner. There is also a 

special root darpantli to do carpenter'* work, from which is 
derived tarpentltto, a carpenter. 

6. Note ace. of direction. 

7. Note the double ti each bdonging to a different root 

Ex. 29«— et (diminutive), -eg: (augmentative). 
Affectionate Suffixes— «dj (mas.), -nj (fem.) 

The suffix -et expresses a diminutive, much as in 
English — llbrOf book; \\tir%tQt booklet. montO^ mountain ; 
monteto, hiU. knabo, bov; knabeto, little boy, &c. 

The suffix -OflT marks an augmentative in the highest 
degree : — ^varma, warm ; varmeSTa, scorching hot. 
piUVOi rain ; piuveSTO, rain storm. 

The suffixes -dj (mas) and -nJ (fem.) after the first 
few letters of a proper name form affectionate dimi- 
nutives : — Ernesto, Eme^'o or Erdjo; Mario, Marinjo 
or Matnjo ; Patro, Pa^fo ; Patrino, Panjoy etc 



. J to heat (T.) la U tit, carriags. 

tfMiM, dense, thick. |Nliv», rain. 

bnio, noiae. pafl, to shoot 

Mi a6etis por la infanoj tableton kaj kelke da se^etoj, 
En nia lando sin^ ne trovas montoj, sed nur montetoj. 
Tuj post la hejto la fomo estis vanneg^a', post unu horo 
§fi estb jam nur varma, post du horoj ^i estis nur iom 
varmeta, kaj post tri horoj ^ estis jam tute malvarma*. 
En somero ni trovas malvarmeton en densaj arbaroj. 
Li sidas apud la tablo kaj dormetas*. Mallar^a vojeto 
kondukas tra tiu 6i kampo al nia domo. Sur lia viza^o 
mi vidis ^ojan rideton. Kun bruo oni malfermis la 
pordegon, kaj la kaledo enveturis en' la korton. Tio 
6i estis jam ne simpla pluvo, sed pluvego. Grandeg-a 
hundo metis sur min' sian antatlan piedegon, kaj mi de 
teruro ne sciis, kion fari. Antati nia militistaro staris 
granda serio da pafilegoj^. 

I. Note ace. 9kL 

s. -6g expresses a gfreater degree of intensity than tr%, 

S. This sentence illustrates all the terms of comparison ot vaniML 

4. Note the diminutive and translate by a suitable English word :— 

5. Note repetition of prq;>. 

6. Note ace. of direction. 

9. Literally, gf$ormous shoottng insirumenis u e. cannon. 

Ex. 80.~>SuFFix -IflT (to causb to bb), 
4ft (to become). 

The suffix -Is is active and oausOB something to be 
done : — 80ll| to know; BCHfiTly to make known, to inform, 
mOftli to die; lliortlgrly to kill, edZO, a married per- 
ton; edzlfli or •dziniJBrlf to give in marriage (as a 
finther) or to many (as a clergyman). 


The suffix -Ift on the contraiy is roflexlve i— Mliy 

io inowi Mll^i io leam, to be apprised of something. 
mordi to die ; mord^i to he killed, edzlsl, to become 
marriedy to many (as a bridegroom), edzlnttl| to 
marry (as a bride). 


koto, dirt, mud. rolo, rail. 

brooo, brush. rado, wheeL 

ru^ red. P^i"«. to haiv G.) 

hontl, to be ashamed. 8apo, cap. 

Mtona, solemn. vento, wmd. 

InfMrtl, to infect (T.) blovf, to blow. 

•oil, to know. kapo, head. 

printMiipo, spring-time. brante, branch. 

En la kota vetero mia vesto forte malpuri^s ; tial mi 
prenis broson kaj purigis la veston. Li pali^is de time 
kaj poste li rug:i^s de honto. Li fian6i^is kun* fratt- 
lino Berto ; post tri monatoj estos la edzi^o ; la edzi^a 
soleno estos en la nova pre^ejo, kaj la edzi^a festo 
estos en la domo de liaj estontaj bogepatroj. Tiu 6i 
maljunnlo tute malsa^i^is kaj in£amig:is. Post infekta 
malsano oni ofte bruligas^ la vestojn de la malsanulo. 
Forigu vian fraton, 6ar li malhelpas al ni'. Mi sciigas, 
ke de nun la Suldoj de mia filo ne estos pagataj de mi. 
§i edzini^is^ kun^ sia kuzo, kvankam Siaj gepatroj 
volis Sin edzinigi^ kun alia persono. En la printempo 
la glacio kaj la ne^o fluidi^as. Venigu la' kuraciston, 
tas mi estas malsana. Li venigis al si* el Berlino 
multajn librojn. Mia onklo ne mortis per natura morto, 
sed li tamen ne mortigis sin mem, kaj ankati estis 
mortigita de neniu; unu tagon, promenante^ apud la 
reloj de fervojo, li falis sub la radojn de veturanta 
vagonaro kaj mortigis*. Mi ne pendigis mian 6apon 
sur tiu 6i arbeto ; sed la vento forblovis de mia kapo la 
tapooy kaj ^, flugante^, pendigis sur la bran6oj de la 


arbeto. Sidigu vin (ati sidi^), tinjoro ! La junulo ali^s 

al nia militistaro kaj kura^e batalis kune kun* ni 

kontrati' niaj poalamikoj. 

I. Note kun not aL 

m. brull is to bum (by itself) ; brullgl, to cause to bora. 

3. NIn migrht be used in place of al llL 

4. Note that for a man to marry is odzi^ for a woman to nuury* 

Odzlnl^ Note di£Ferent efifects of 1^ and Iffl. 

5. The def. art. implies tks doctor thai we knowt the usual dotUtr, If 

it were absent, any doctor would be expressed. Vonlgll, cause tm 
comet fetch, 

6. Al Si might be omitted* but the sense would be hardly identical : in 

this case it is obtained or procured for himself. Note also •! 
9. Adverbial, because it refisrs to tiie sutject. Pwid l^ ii b hmtg Use^, 
got caught, 

8. This sentence and tiie foUowinir illustrate and contrast the suffijcea 

Iflfl and 1^. 

9. Note the contrast of kun and kMltrafig often e xp re ss ed by the 
B prepositioo in Eni^lish. 

Ex. 31.— -Suffix -eM (possibiutt), -kid 
(woRTHiNBSs), -em (habit), -er (unit). 

The 8llinx -OM, partly corresponds to our ibU or able 
and denotes posMUity ; kredli to beUtve; krsdebla, 
credible^ &c. 

The suffix -ind, denotes worthiness; kradblllay 
worthy of belief; mlrinitaf wonderful. 

The suffix -snif denotes indination, propensity, 
disposition; Ivsdsmay credulous; liabiiSlliai inclined io 
chatter, talkative^ &ۥ 

The suffix -er, denotes a unit ; hajlo, hail; fU^lMt^ 
a hail-stone; SablO| sand; salMerOi a grain of sand. 


italo. steeL bagmtelo» trifle, toy. 

Itoksl, to bend. VMijl, to avenge, to rareiiMb 

vitro, grUu (substanc*). efcwltl, to exdtT ^^ 

rompi, to break (T.) pohfO, dust, 

iaudi, to praise. falro, fire. 

RMmorl, to remember. okspkNU, to explode (L) 
■pari, to be thrifty, to spare, to PMlvo, gunpowder, 


Stalo estas fleksebla, sed fero ne estas fleksebla. 
Vitro estas rompebla kaj travidebla. Ne 6iu kreskajo 
estas man^ebla. \na parolo estas tute nekomprenebla, 
kaj viaj leteroj estas 6iam skribitaj tute nelegeble^. 
Rakontu al mi vian malfelifion, Sar eble mi povos helpi 
al vi'. Li rakontis al mi historion tute ne kredeblan. 
Cu vi amas vian patron? Kia demando ! kompreneble, 
ke* mi lin amas. Mi kredeble ne povos veni al vi 
hodiati, 6ar mi pensas, ke mi mem havos hodiaii 
gastojn. Li estas homo ne kredinda. Via Ago estas 
tre laiidinda. Tiu 6i grava tago restos por mi 6iam 
memorinda. Lia edzino estas tre laborema kaj 
l^arema, sed di estas ankaii tre babilema kaj kriema. 
U estas tre ekkolerema, kaj eksciti^as ofte 6e^ la pie} 
malgfranda bag^telo ; tamen li estas tre pardonema, 11 
ne portas longe la koleron kaj li tute ne estas ven^ema. 
Li estas tre kredema : et la plej nekredeblajn aferojn', 
kiujn rakontas al 11 la plej nekredindaj homoj, 11 tuj 
kredas. Centimo, pfenigo kaj kopeko estas moneroj. 
Sablero enfalis en' mian okulon. Li estas tre purema, 
kaj e6 una polveron vi ne trovos sur lia vesto. Unu 
fajrero^ estas tufi6a, por eksplodigi' pulvoa« 

I. Note the adv. qualifyinsr the rerb. If akllbltal were omitted, the 

adj. naleffsMal wouldbe used. 
■. Note al after helpL 

S. Ke. Note contraction, «•!■• bein^ omitted. The ftiU tentence is 
«•!■• komprtneble, ke. . . . 

4. 6e, o^ ; de ml, ai my house. It is often used figuratively, as in this 

case, when it means in connection with, 

5. Note the inversion in this sentence, whidi is yet dear owinf^ to the 

object hang placed in the aoc This constnictioo is not 

6. Note repetition of prep, and ace of directioa. 
7< A particle of fire, L e. « a^ark, 

& HMplOtfi btuii^ intranaitif^, III Is neoBssaiy to make it transMveb' 


■x. 82.— Suffix -ad (duration), -tj (fiacs), 
-i4 (contains), -biff (holder). 

The suffix -ad denotes the continuation or repetition 
of an action :—8pirly to breathe; SplrBdO^ respiration 
or breathings &c. 

The suffix -ej denotes the place of an}rthing:, or 
where an action occurs : — dormli to sleep ; dormejo^ 
dormitoiy. lemly to learn. IsrneJOy school^ &c. 

The suffix -Uj denotes that which bears or contains : 
mustards, mustard; mustardujo, mustard-pot. iniu^ 
ink; inl(H|0, inkstand. AnfilO, an Englishman; AlH 
ffil^Oi England (containing Eng-lishmen). IMNnSy 
apple ; pomujo, apple-tree^ &c. (pomarbo, is also used). 

The suffix -inff denotes a holder :—pluillOy pen; 
Vl^umlngo, penholder ; kaiidslOi candle; kandslinffo, 

candlestick^ &c. 


dafirOf course, duration. _ 

surprizi, to surprise, to take vendl, to sell, 

unawares (T.) Olfiraro, cigar. 

laoa, weary, tired. tubo, tube. 

trompl, to deceive, to cheat. fumOf smoke. 

fulmo, iigrhtningr. skatolo, small box, case. 

Ivltl, to perspire. pantalono, trousers. 

bani, to bathe (T.) surtuto, overcoat. 
brako, arm. 

£n la dattro^ de kelke da minutoj mi atidis du pafojn. 
La pafado datiris tre longe. Mi eksaltis^ de surprize. 
Mi saltas tre lerte. Mi saltadis la tutan tagon de loko 
al loko. Li 6iam diradis al mi la veron. Lia hieratia' 
parolo estis tre bela, sed la tro multa parolado lacigas 
lin. Kiam vi ekparolis^, ni atendis atidi ion novan, sed 
baldati ni vidis, ke ni trompi^s. Li kantas tre belan 
kanton. La kantado estas agrabla okupo. La dia- 
manto havas belan brilon. Du ekbriloj^ de fitlmo tra- 
kuris tra* la malluma 6iela La domo, en ktu oni 

EXERCISE 32. 59 

lemas, estas lemejoi kaj la domo, en kiu oni pre^as, 
estas pre^ejo. La kuiristo sidas' en la kuirejo. La 
kuracisto konsilis al mi iri en Svitbanejon'. Magazeno, 
en kiu oni vendas cigfaroin, att ^ambro, en kiu oni tenas 
cig^rojn, estas cigarejo ; skatoleto atl alia objekto, en 
kiu oni tenas cig-arojn, estas ci|^rujo ; tubeto en kiun* 
oni metas cig^aron, kiam oni ^in fumas» estas cigaring^o. 
Skatolo, en kiu oni tenas plumojn, estas plumujo, kaj 
bastoneto, sur kiu oni tenas plumon por skribado, estas 
pluming-o. En la kandeling'O sidis' bnilanta kandelo. 
En la poSo de mia pantalono^ mi portas monujon, kaj 
en la podo de mia surtuto mi portas paperujon; pli 
g^randan paperujon mi portas sub la brako. La Rusoj 
lo|:as en Rusujo kaj la Germanoj en Germanujo. Morti 
pro la patnijo estas agrable^. 

I. This expression should be noted tot use in similar cases. Avoid 
dum here. 

s. Note the effect of prefix 9k, denoting sudden oommencement, or 
momentary action. 

S. Note the a4i. formed from the adv. 

4. Note rqpetition of prep. 

5. Note the use of tldl <o express the accustomed ^lact of any person 

or thini^. 

6. Note ace. of direction. 

7. Note that pantalono is sini^. while the Eni^lish equiralent is pluraL 
& Note the adverbial form, qualifying an inf. 

9. /*0r^rtfif or Turktsh bath. 

u— The suffix -ado must only be employed when the idea 

of continuing an at-tion hat> to be conveyed. It should never be used 
for rhe sake of euphitny, when the sense can be exprt^sed by a 
simpler form of the nuun. 

** The faculties ot thought, will, hearine , smell, &c., are trans- 
lated by penaado, volado, audado, flarado. &c But the momentary 
tmerctnt oi one of thene facuiues is merely 


Ex. 33.— Prefix cBt- (dissbmimativb), ra» 

(back Sl repetition), Suffix -um (indefinite), 

moftto (title of honour). 

The prefix dl8- denotes separation, but never a 
neg^ative as in English : 8eill( to sow; diMemli fo 
scatter^ to disseminate, &c. 

The prefix re- is used as in Engflish :— flOfll, to give: 
redoniy to give bad, &C. 

The euflflx -lam has no definite meaning, and in this 
respect resembles Je among the prepositions. The 
few words with which it is used must be learnt as simple 

Mo§tO is a general title of honour. Via mofttOi would 
be translated your worship, j^our honour, your excellency^ 
your lordship, your grace, according to circumstances. 


atfiiffl, to attain, to reach. lUS?'**' }»«hop. 

rozultato, result. jjjj* f^:J^^^ 

ft, . . . . J /»n V dlflnl, to define. 

Ilrt, to tear, to rend (T.) ptonuml, to fulfiL 

peMi piece. kolunio, collar. 

moito, ireneral title of honour. nuuiumo, cuff. 

Ni 6iuj kunvenis, por priparoli tre g^van aferon ; sed 
ni ne povis atingi ian rezultaton, kaj ni disiris. 
Malfeli6o ofte kunigas la homojn, kaj feli6o ofle disigas 
ilin. Mi disSiris la leteron kaj disl}etis ^iajn pecetojn en 
6iujn angulojn^ de la 6ambro. Li donis al tbi monon, 
sed mi ^in tuj redonis al li. Mi foriras, sed atendu 
min, 6ar mi baldaii revenos. La suno rebrilas en la 
klara akvo de la rivero. Mi diris al la re^o : via rega 
modto, pardonu min! El^ la tri leteroj unu estis 
adresita : al Lia Episkopa MoSto Sinjoro N. ; la dua s 
al Lia Grafa Modto, Sinjoro P. ; la tria : al Lia MoSto 
Sinjoro D. La sufikso '*um" ne havas difinitan 
tignifon, kaj tial la (tre malmultajn) vortojn kun " um **' 

EXERCISE 88. 6r 

oni devas lerni', kiel simplajn vortojn. Ekzemple: 

plenumi, kolumo, manumo. Mi volonte plenumis lian 

deziron. En malbona vetero oni povat facile mal- 


I. Note ace of diractaon* 

a. Note use of •! when ue^ectmg fixmi a nuaiber of artklii* 

3. Note the ioTerdon of this sentence. 

4. Catch cold. 

A4iect!ves and Partictples SLgne in numi^r and cMst if used qualm 
ificaiivtfyt Le. to express an actual quality pertainini^ to the noun or 
pronoun; but in number only, if used ^dtccdivefyt Le. to "'say 
■omethingr about" a noun or pronoun which may* in £act, be untrue; 
in this case the verb Mtl is understood. Compare the following 
sentences and note the difference of meaninif. 
QuAL. Ml trovto lln tei^enaii, 

I found him sdd (in a sad state, he was really sad). 
Prbd. mi trovit lln (estentan or esti) 6affrM»v 

I found ^pn (to be) sad (in my opinion, but it may be incorrect). 
QuAL. Ml trovto la vtnon bonan, 

I found the good wine (the wine properly called "0004*% 
Pud. mi trovto la vinoii bona, 

I found the wine (to be) grood (but others might call it ba^ 
QuAi.. Nl trovto llln morUntaln, 

We found them dead (they had died when we found them). 
Fred. Nl trovit llln morUntaJ, 

We found them (to be) dead (that was our judgment as to their 

QuAL. U vidio lln morUffantan bifanon, 

He saw her killing a child (in the very act of Ulllag). 
Piuro. U vMlo lln mortlffanta bifanon, 

He saw her (to be) killing a child (that was his judgment, but he 
may have been mistaken). 

A sentence like the last may also be better expressed :— U vIdIo 
lln klu morOgai Infanon. 

($ee De Beaufronfs " Commentaire," and Fmictier's "Sintakso" for 

more detailed information with respect to these and other pointe in 

the language^ 

te EXERCISE 84. 



fWno, £aii7. ambafi, both. 

vMva, widower. ftora, proud. 

•Iinlla, like, similar. yM, to live. 

ksralctara, diaracter. plena, full, complete. 

vlza^o* face. hua, according to. 

povl, to be able, can. hoilMta, honest. 

paiMl, to thinki Urmn, besides, without, ezcept. 

Unu^ vidvino havit du filinojiu La pli maljuna estia 
tiel simila al la patrino per^ sia karaktero tuij viza^o, ke 
6iu, kiu din vidis, povis pensi, ke li vidas* la patrinon ; ili 
ambatt estis tiel malagrablaj kaj tiel fieraj, ke om ne 
povis vivi kun ili. La pli juna filino, kiu estis la plena 
portreto da sia^ patro lati' sia boneco kaj honestecOf 
estis, krom tio, unu el la plej belaj knabinoj, kiujn oni 
povis trovi. 

I. The use of umi, apparently as an indef. art, has been mudi 
discussed. It can only be trans l ated a ctrtain widow. It is 
employed for emphasis. 

s. The Author uses psr and lafi in a similar sense. 

3. Note the Pres. where we use the Past. 

4. 81a not lla, because the reference is to the Subject. 

§. Feino is the feminine form of fSO {fo^)* which, however, is seldom 
used. By international consent, Fairies are supposed to be (rf the 
female sex. 


LA FElNO-^DaiifigoJ. 

tfafirlf to oootmue, endure. Mlif without, 
•rdinarai usual, ordinary. 6Mly to cease, desist 
pMnono, person. Intsr, among, between, 

warm. af •ro, affair, business. 

fMida, happy. 

tsmpo, time. terpi, to draw (water). 

, terror. 

devi, ought, must, (I.) loko, place. 

Iculrl, to cook. pom, to bear, carry. 

tabori, to work, labour. kru^ jug, pitcher. 

Car^ 6iu amai ordinara personon, kiu estas simila al 
li*y tial tiu tt patriae varmes^e amis sian' pli maljunan 
filinon, kaj en tiu lama tempo di havis teniran malamon 
kontrati la pli juna. §i devigis^ Sin man^ en la kuirejo 
kaj laboradi sendese. Inter aliaj aferoj tiu tl malfelida 
infano devis' du fojojn* en 6iu tago in 6erpi akvon en 
tre malproksima loko kaj alporti domen^ plenan grandan 

I. Note use of 6ar in place of our «s. 

a. N not si, because khl is the Subject of phrast. 

S. tian, referring to patrfiM. 

4. tfcvl being intransittye. it is necessary to add -Igl, to gire it the 

force oTcom^lt which is transitive, followed by WU 

5. Here the rerb is intransitivt. 

6. Ace of Time. 

7. Ace ofDinctioa. 

64 EXERCISE 36. 

LA FElNO^DaUr^oJ. 

ffMlttff tpnoM* Mlflf to be thirsty. 

voloiit*, wiUmsrly. tfonael, to make a preeeat 

tuj, immediately. prMlli to take. 

lavl, to wash. formo, form. 

•ub, under, beneath, bekm. ^witlla, poUte. kind. 

nnly to hold, grrasp. g^ „^ ^^__ 

En^ unu^ tago, kiam ti estis apud tiu fonto, venis al U 
malrida virino, kiu petis Sin, ke ti* donu al Si' trinki. 
" Tre volonte, mia bona,** dins la bela knabino. Kaj di 
tuj lavis sian^ kru6on kaj 6erpis akvon en la pie} pura 
loko de la fonto kaj alportis" al la virinoi 6iam subte- 
nante* la kru6on. por ke la virino povu^ trinki pli opor- 
tune. Kiam la bona virino trankviligis" sian' soifon, Si 
diris al la knabino : *' Vi estas tiel bela, tiel bona kaj 
tiel honesta, ke mi devas fan al vi donacon *' (6ar tio^* 
6i estis feino, kiu prenis sur sin la fonnon de malrida 
vila^a virino, por vidi, kiel granda estos^ ^ la ^entileco 
de tiu 6i juna knabino). "Mi faras al vi donacon," 
dailrigis la feino, '*ke 6e tiu vorto, kiun vi diros,^^ el 
via budo eliros ati floro ati multekosta Stono." 

I. En is used to translate our oi*. 
s. Unu is again used as in Ex. 34. 

$, The first U refers to the girl, and the second to the £ury. 

4. Slan not liap, because it refers to the Subject IL 

5. Note repetition of al. 

6. Adverbial, because it refers to the Sutrject. 

7. Note Imperative after p«r ka (Note 7, Ex. 9). 

8. A Trans. Verb, made by adding -IffI to the A4j. 

9. 8lan not llan, becauM it refers to the Subject. 

10. tiO is used when thl might be expected, the Author evidently 
regarding the Fairy as fk. thmf^—SM apparition. A wdl known 
phrase occurs in Ilatin : — vanunt et tmUahiU temp er femmmt 
when a fern, noun is treated as a neuter. 

II. Note Future here, not Cond. 
IS. Future, instead of our Present. 

EXERCISE 87. 6$ 


wHiu, insult, tcold, ipeak n*i1f to wonder (I.) 

rougrhly to, abuse, reViIt. iiUnlf to seem. 

fnio, early. noml, to call, name. 

pardonl, to forgive. naiva, naive, innocent. 

ionga, long-. okazl, to happen. 

HUtly to leap, jump. dunif while. 

perlo, pearl. Mndl, to send. 

dlamanto, diamond. kapabia, capable. 

Kiam tiu 6i bela knabino venis domen, Sia^ palrino 
insultis Sin, kial' di revenis tiel malfrue de la fonto. 
<<Pardonu al mi, patrino," diris la malfeli6a knabino, 
<< ke mi restis tiel long^e."* Kaj kiam Si paroHs tiujn 6i 
vortojn, elsaltis* el dia buSo tri rozoj, tri perloj kaj tri 
gfrandaj diamantoj. ** Kion mi vidas ! " diris dia patrino 
•kun grandeg^ miro. ''Sajnas al mi, ke el Sia buSo 
elsaltas^ perloj kaj diamantoj I De kio tio ti venas, mia 
iilino ? " (Tio 6i estis la unua fojo, ke Si nomis Sin'^ sia 
filino).' La malfeli6a infano rakontis al Si naive 6ion, 
kio okazis al Si,* kaj dum Si parolis, elfalis^ el Sia^ buSo 
multegfo da diamantoj. ** Se estas tiel," diris la patrino, 
<'mi devas tien sendi mian filinon. Marinjo, rig-ardu, kio 
eliras^ el la buSo de via fratino, kiam Si parolas ; 6u ne 
estus al vi ag-rable* havi tian saman kapablon? Vi 
devas nur iri al la fonto 6erpi akvon ; kaj kiam malri6a 
Tirino petos* de vi trinki, vi donos ^in al Si gentile.*' 

I. ftia because it qualifies the Subject, patrina 

s. The use of klal— wA^, shows that IntuKI is used in a different 
sense to our word insuU, which, besides being inappropriate as 
between mother and daughter, would require to be followed by 
because. The phrase might be translated "asked her roughly 
why." See also Zamenhofs "Hamlet," Act III., Sc. 8. (Page 

08, line 15). 
S. Nob * • ' 

Note Adv. form. 

4. Note repetition of •!. 

5. This phrase illustrates very clearly the use of •!•■ 

6. ftiy because Mo is the Subject. 

tftla, because muitaffO is the Subject. 
This is an instance of the Nom. used predicativvly. See 
Ex. 33, Remark. 
9. Future, instead of our Present 

66 EXERCISE 88. 

LA FElNO^DaUfigoJ. 

murmyri^ to nuannur* ^ramble. iptola l a, apodaL 

vai«k vase. optnlis opinion. 

ar^Mito, tihrer (metal). kotoii, to be an^rry. 

apMiau, acarcely, hardly. Mrvl, to serve, to obUgre. 

otrtai cfirtaifi, sura. ranob irog, 

" Estus tre bele," respondia la filino mai^eatile, ** ke 
mi iru^ al la fonto I " — ** Mi volas ke vi tien ini,^ " diria 
la patrinoy '* kaj im tuj I " La filino iris, sed 6iaiii 
murmurante.' Si prenis la pl^ belan ar^entan vazon, 
kiu estis en la lo^ejo. Apenati Si venis al la fonto,' Si 
vidis unu sinjorinon, tre ri6e vestitan/ kiu eliris el la 
arbaro kaj petis de Si tiinki (tio ti estis tiu sama feino, 
kiu prenis sur sin la formon kaj la vestojn de princino, 
por vidi, kiel granda estos* la malboneco de ttu 6i 
knabino. <<Cu mi Tenis tien 6i/' diris al Si la malg-en- 
tila kaj fiera knabino, *'por doni al vi trinki ? Certe, 
mi alportis ar^entan vazon spedale por tio, por doni 
trinki al tiu ti sinjorino I Mia opinio estas : prenu mem 
akvon, se vi volas trinki." — *' Vi tute ne estas ^entila," 
diris la feino sen kolero. " Bone, 6ar vi estas tiel ser- 
vema, mi faras al vi donacon, ke te ttu vorto, kiun vi 
parolos, eliros el via buSo att serpento att rano." 

I. Note the Imperative after volaa See Note 7, Ex. 9. 
a. Note AdverUal form. (See Notes, Ex. 14). 

3. Note the omission of a word corresponding^ to our when. 

4. Note the Ace mgnaag with oliUMinoii. 

g. Note the Future in place of our Conditiooat. 

exERci6E ao. 67 

LA FElNO^DaUrigoJ' 


rlmarMi to remark, notice. 6mI| to hunt 

kril, to cry, call tfMiMiidl, to ask. 

im, Weill MlSf alone. 

kulpa, blameable, culpable. pn, on account of, for the 

tall, to hide. •'^ ^• 

n^kinff. lHiir«lala.l 

Apenatt lia piitino din rimarkis, ^ Si kriis al di : ' 'Ntt, 
mia filino ?"— " Jes, patrino," respondis al Si la mal^en- 
tilulinoi' elfetante ttnu serpenton kaj unu ranon. — " Ho, 
6ielo t " akkriis la patrino, '* kion mi vidas ? Sia fratino 
en tio estas kulpa ; mi pagos al Si por tio 61 1 ** — Kaj Si 
tuj kuris bati Sin. La malfeli6a infano forkuris kaj kaSis 
sin' en la plej proksima arbaro. La filo de la re^o, kiu 
revenis de tsaOf Sin renkontis ; kaj vidante,' ke Si estas 
tiel bela, li demandis Sin, kion Si faras^ tie tt tute sola 
kaj pro kio Si ploras. — " Ho ve t sinjoro, mia patrino 
forpelis min el la domo." 

|. Note omitsion of a word correepondlnff to our whtn* 

I. tlfl not thl, as it relates to the Subject 

$. Adyerbialf because it relates to the Subject ■• 

4* Present not Past as in Bni^Iish. 

§, WMI g wi tti Ml 1 1 1 $ m PoUie p^rtm ifmu). 


LA FElNO-{Daiirigt>J. 

AWMituro, adventure. p r^pn^ own. 

. konslitorl, to consider. alOMiitl, accepU receive as a guest. 

Inda, worthy, valuable. IwiMHlfli soon. 

dOtOi dowry. MiffUiOk comer, ans^le. 

La re^do, kiu vidis, ke el ^ tmdo eliris kelke da 

perloj kaj kelke da diamantoj, petls Sin, ke di dini^ al li, 

de kie tio ti venas.' §i rakontis al li sian' tutan aven- 

turon. La re^do konsideris, ke tia kapablo havas pli 

g^randan indon, ol 6io, kion oni povus doni dote^ al alia 

frai^no, forkondukis' Sin al la palaco de sia patro, la 

re^o, kie li edzi^is je* di. Sed pri Sia fratino ni povas 

diri, ke Si fari^ tiel malaminda, ke Sia propra patrino 

Sin forpelis de si;^ kaj la malfeli6a knabino, multe 

kurinte^ kaj trovinte^ neniun, kiu volus Sin akcepti, 

baldati mortis en angulo de arbanx 

I. Note the Imperative to replace the Infinitive after ptlL Note % 
Ex. 9. 

s. Present not Past as in Bni^liih. 

3. turn not liap, as it refers to the Sutged. 

4. Note Adverbial form. 

5. The prefix for implies Jbrih from ilu Jbrai, ot ofWQf. 

6. In Ex. 30, the Preposition tain is used with the verb tdzl^ 

Either may be employed. 

7. This phrase is a good illustration of the use of tl. 

8. Note the Adverbial form of the Part., referring to the Subkci 

(See Notes, Ex. 14.) 


The application of Esperanto to commercial or other 
correspondence ynU offer no difficulty to the student 
who has worked through the preceding exercises. In 
writing Esperanto, write as simply and as clearly as 
possible ; and do not be afraid of repeating the same 
root or preposition if it adds to the clearness of a 
sentence. Avoid idioms and expressions which are 
purely national ; translate the idea you wish to express, 
rather than the word. A glance at the vocabulary 
g^ven at the end of these Lessons will show that the 
same English word is often used in different senses. In 
order to avoid being misunderstood, it is, therefore, 
necessary to select the Esperanto equivalent with dis- 
crimination. As it is impossible to provide for every 
contingency that may arise in all businesses, the plan 
has been adopted of giving models of useful phrases 
which can be combined as desired. Every trade has its 
own technical vocabulary which will, in time, be system- 
atised and adopted by International mutual consent 
Our list of words does not pretend to be exhaustive, bu\ 
is rather an attempt at collating the terms most gene 
rally useful It is a good plan to keep a note-book in 
which to record any convenient word or expression 
which may occur in correspondents' letters. 


Londono, je la 2* de Jan<^. 19 — . 

It is more usual to omit the prep. J6 and use the 
^cc. : — 

Londono, la 2" de Jan', 19 — * 


This is the most correct, but the following arfe met 
with : — 

London©, la 10« Feb». 19-^ 
, 19« de Novo, i^^ 
, 20" Sep". 19—. 
, 28 Dec". 19—. 
, 3/4/19—. 
When dates occur in the body of a letter to specify 
a particular document, they are usually preceded by 
the prep. dO, and are consequently in the nom. : — 

de la 17* de la lasta monata. 

de la 17* de la lasta, or de la 17* lasta. 

de la 2* de la nuna (or kuranta) monato. 

de la 2* nuna (or kuranta). 

de la 3* de la venonta (or proksima). 

But if used without prep, to refer to the date itself« 
they would of course also be in the ace 


Al Sinjoro H. J. Smith, en New York. 

Al Sinjoroj Smith, Brown kaj K^ , en Hull. 
(Al and 0H may be omitted). 

"Sinjoro." "Sinjoroj." "Kara Sinjoro." "Karaj 
Sinioroj." "Estimata Sinjoro." "Estimataj Sin- 
joroj." &c 

Some correspondents — notably the German — omit this, the equi- 
valent of our ** Sir " or ** Dear air." Having written the name o€ 
the addressee at the head, the letter commences without further 
ceremony. This style is not to be reconunended in Esperanto. 

J^eply to letter, 
Respoodante vian (estimatan) leteron de. . « 
Ni ricevis vian leteron de. . . . 

Mi rapidas respondi al vialetero de or vian leteron de... 

Mi posedas vian leteron de. . » 


Ni MtM hoaorati^ p«r via kttro d«. . . 

El vialeterode.... mi ■cHfifai, km^ » 

Vian Satatan leteron de.. .. nai riccris, kij.. . 

Mi plezure konfirmas la riceron de via oatiniata db.. « 

£o via estimata de. . .« 


Mi permesas al mi proponi al vi. . ., 

Mi havas la honoron sdigi al vi, ka.. ..> or vin, ke... 

Mi havas la honoron'proponi al vi. . . • 

Plezure ni havas la honoroa informi viii« ke....* er fldigivia 

Tiu di letero celas Kugi vin, ke. . . . 
Ni havas la plezuron anond al vi, ke... .. 
Kun bedatiro mi sciigas vin, ke. . . . 
Mi dankas vin pro via propoao* kaj .... 

Mi permesas al mi adresi al vi raian i»ezaroa» ka^ samtempe 
kelkajn spedmenbjn de. . . . 

Mi havas la honoron proponi al vi la jena^n komercajojn .... 
Mi esperas ke tiu 6i prezoj k^j kondi£oj eetos akceptits^ de vi. . ^ 


Per Uo £i, or per £i-tio, or almetite» or enfermite.... 

Mi havas la honoron sendi al vi.« ^ 

Tie 6i enfermite, vi trovos. . «. 

Ni havas la plezuron enmeti tie di. . . .» or aldoni tie £i. . .^ 

Kune kun tiu £{, ni havas la plezuron senidi al vi. . « 

Per tiu 6i sama poSto, vi ricevos .... 

En aparta koverto, mi sendas al vi. . .. 

Per la tie £i aldonita letero vi sdi^oe, ke«o 

Ni konfirmas al vi nian leteron de. . . 

Samtempe mi sendas al vi.... 


Per po&to revenanta volu sendi al mi. . « 
Ni petas ke vi tuj sendu al ni. . . . 
Sendu al mi, mi petas, rapidire. . . . 

Konforme kun la prezoj kaj kondidoj, kiujn enhavas via letero, 
tti e^teras ke vi voUs send> al mi.. .. 



Ni ektpedas al vi hodiati, tnalrapidire, keston enhavantan 

Ni hodiatt forsendis per la ttpo sub via addreao 

komercajojnt latt spedfiko aldomta* ksg debetas yian kalkukm 
(kontoa) per £ , la tuto de la enfermita fakturo. 

Volu. mi petas, krediti mlan kalkiilon (konton) per la almetita 
£akturo de j^ > pagota en Londono, la i7an de Marto proksiona. 

Vl troToe, tie £i enfermite, la detalan fakturm. Vdu enskribt la 
■iimon, £ , en nian krediton. 

Suldas S-ro .... en ... . ^or la jenaj komerCajoj, dnpedltaj por 

lia kalkulo, nakoj, kaj perdcg, per latt dapedbilo ^argfatesto) 

No » adresitag alS-ro pagc^ .... 


Mi 3ut riceria la komercajcjn apartenantagn al via &ktuio 
de > kiiiun ekxamininte> mi Ixovis konfonmg. 

Tial, mi kreditaa Tiaa kalkukm per £......, la tuto de ilia 


Konforme ie via fekturo* ni enskribaa en vian krediton £,»,,^ 
pagfota la 7an de Migo. 


Vl volu plenum! la asekuron de I'sendajo en la tuta valora, 
kontratt £iuj riskoj* aU kontratt komuna difdrtajo, aU kontratt 
komuna averio (afifainst all risks, or ** general average. ') 

Vi asekuros la komerca^ojn, lattkutime, sen aporta difektaja^ mit 
averio. (Free of '* particular average," f. p. a.) 


Por la pago, volu prezentigi kambk>n al mia kaso, poet triddc 
tagoj, kun a/p. ct. diskonto, kontorme je visg kondi^oj. 

Mi sendas al vi per tio 6i por saldi la konton, kambionde 

pagotan tri tagoj post vido 6e la Banko en via urbo. 

Mi petas ke vi sendu al mi kvitancon. 

Mi sciigas vin, ke mi tratis (elirigis) hodiatt kontratt vi kambiott 

No , pagotan la tagon i>ost §JA akoepto, ordono ds 

la Banko, valorantan £ , kiun mi kreditas en via lrai>nilo 


Mi sdifiras, ke vi tratis (elirigis) kontratt mi kambion No 

valorantan j^ kiun mi debetas en via VaUnT^o (kontoX ka^ kh| 

estos efektivigita ^gita) je sia limtempa 


Mi rezervas por vi la kutiman procentajon, te., la 10 p. cfco. 
Do nai um **komisu>'* hsrg, which means ** cammissum" or "order'" 
entrusted to one), 


Donante la referencojn sube tkriUtigii, mi 

Ni desiras rio«vi de vi kelkaja informojii pri la stato financa de la 

Mi petas vin, ke vi volu infoitni min pri la firmo de tiu 

urbo, latl la jenaj demandoj : — 

La firmo fifuas tie £i la plej bonan reputadon. . .. « 

Sen srarantio nek respondeco. 


Esperanto meriti vian konfidon 

Atendante vian respondon, (konsenton) 

„ visgn ordonojn, (mendojn, Bciigfojn) ...... 

Esperanto, ke vi favoroa min per visy mendoj 

Ciam preta (aj) por servi al vi 

Esperanto ricevi viajn estimation mendojn, mi .. .. • 
Mi dankaa vin antaiiet k^ 


Kun alta estimo, afi kun altesttmo A. B. 
Vin salutas, C. D. 
Kun respekto, B. P. 
Altestime, G.H. 
Mi kore salutas vin, K.L. 
Tre sincere, via. M. N. 
Kun respekto vin salutas, R.S. 
Mi restas via servanto, A.W. 
Via tre kore sindonema, B.A. 
Ni restas, kun estimo, viaj sinceraj, D. & C. 
Ni subskribas kun altestimo, E. & F. 
Mi prezentas al vi, Sii^joro, mian sinceran saluton, L. O. 
Mi petas vin, ke vi akceptu la certig^on de mia alta estimo, W. A. 
Mi vin salutas k^ restas via tre kore, J. P. 
VcAu ricevi, Sinjoro, mia^n pl^ korajn dankesprimojn, S. R. 
(7%tf shorter /brms are those generalfy used). 



Mi rioevii de S-vni WiWmmt k^f K4o la •umoa de kvindti 
/itn^' sterlingajt kaA^tnian \ 

Ni notmB de 5^ John Edmfard$ la tumoa de dSnl sn:^ fimiqf, 
set iilingtff kq/ ok ttnc^ 1m1 uUtUm do Ua homU, 

Wmcmrm h Ca 
A17 „ • „ & 


iVtf. ^ Kambio de £10t n i M i* .....^^...^....igo..- 

7W OTMMo^tj^ poet daio de tiu £i twuMt kan^xo (ee la d$ta haj 

iria de sama dato kaj eaharo ne eetae jam pagttaj) pafi^u lafi la 

ordono de Sii^^orto Rohmsen kt^ K-do la sumoa de C09U fmUtfj 

tterlmge^ ~ ..«•»«... » Taloro ricevHd ......... per kiu ti 

debetos nian kcmton. 

JoMM ft Smra. 

Al S-roj, Sfvum ktnj Kdo, 

Note.~Theee forms are often partly printed. The italic type 
•hows the pCMTtaoos to be filled in by hand. 


In nuMt caaes iaatoad o£ beioff to the Ofder of a third party, 
as above, it is to the order of the drawen : the wording would then 
be **^agu laU nia ardotto,'* 

Jonee ft Smith .. are here .. ta t m l M l to J the drawer*. 

Brown & K-io. . — . to tnitat^l the drawees. 

Robinson & K-io.^ 

' oes & Smith V 

i second case J 

or Tones & Smith V — .to ^nuitaf the endorsers, 
mthe seconc' 

It is usual for the timtalo to write across the fiace of the bOl :— 

''AicgfiOa, fmgoia U la Bamh^ 

Bronm kqf K<o,** 

The ^nuito^ simply signs his name on tiie back, unless he has 
any particular directions to gire as to payment* 

For complete letters in various styles, see "Komercaj Leteroj" 
by P. Berthelot ft Ch. Lambert; **Komerca Sekretario" by 
J. R. SudriA; "Cours Commercial d'Bsperanto" by L. Marissiaux; 
and " Kondukanto " by A. Orabowski. 

The student is advised to join one or other of the 
Groups affiliated to the British Esperanto Association, 
for the purpose of practice in conversation, and also to 
study for the Certificates of Proficiency, granted after 
examination, by that Association. 



Words within sqtiare brackets have been suggested, 
but are not yet ofiSdal. In many cases, only the verb is 
printed in full, derived words being indicated by gram- 
matical terminations. 

abatement, rabato, depreno 
aooidwit, akddento 
aooordanoe With, In, konlbrme al 
act (deed), akto 
notion (legal) procMO 
aoooiitanoo, akcepto 
aooomplloo, kunkulpulo, kuiw 

llns to oustom, latikutiine 
nooount boofco, kontoUbroj 

— lodffor, fidSibro 

— Involoo, afietlibro, £aktur^ 


— day. vendlibro 

— oasn, caslibro 

— pothf oash, kaaetolibro, 

elspez — 
nooount, konto, kalkulo 

— ourrent. kuranta konto 
noouoo (indtie) tO, kulpigi 
aotuary {ins.) faktuaro] 

— {registrar) aktisto 
address, to your, sub via adreso 
nndrosooo, -or, adresato, -anto 
ndministrator, administranto 
ndvanteao of the offer, to take, 

profitila proponon 
advertlae, reklami 
advlOO, {in/ormaiion), sdi^o 
advise, {inform), tO. sdigri, &c. 
advooate (barrisief), advokalo 
affidavit, 3urdeklaracio 
narent, affento 

agio {difference tn exchX afrio 
nfflotsge, {deal, in diffs.) a£:ioto 

— to Job, a^ioti 

— Jobber, ajgriotisto 
agrsemont, interkonsento, 4 

— oontraot, kontrakto 
allot, to, lotumi 
nlkMMUloe, kompenso 

— for taro, depreno pro taro 
annuity, dumviva rento 
ansuverable for, to bSk eati 

responda pri 
antlolpatod (" 

atenditaj tumultoj 
apparont ^rood order i 

dltkm, ftigne en •rdo kaj bon- 

appoal {lez.), apeladi, -o 
apphf to, to, sin turni al 
arMtratlon, arbitracio 

— awiard, ^arbitrada ayu|:o 
arohlvos, arhivo 
arrears, pag^ restajoj 
assets, bavo 

, estimate, rate, taksi 

assign* {allocate), asieni 
— {trttn^fer), transcbni 
, rs, rooonvey, recedi 

assortment, sortimento 

at home or abroad, en att 

auction, atikcio, attkda vendo 



MitliorlMk tab nutisi, don! ple- 

najn nytojn al 
autnorlty, atttoriteto, ntHgo 
wmng9 {prictt number^ qual- 

tty)t meza prezo, ^ombro* 

— ^kvalito 
av»rag«(m«.). difektajo, [ayerio] 

— ffeneralf komuna „ », 

— pArttoular, apaita „ „ 

— Iffca. sen aparta », „ 
ban bond, katioo 

-'{the pledge Use^f^ kattda 
t, banko 

banker, bankiero 
bank nota, bankbfleto 
bankrunt, to boooma,ta Ml, 

bankroti, -o 
bankruntoy,. offlolal 

In, Ukvidisto 
boar, to {stock. exX h 

por la malpiikangro 
boquoath, to, testament! 
boquoot, testamenta^o 
bill of Axohango, kambio, trato 

— promloooiy notOi 1.0.11., 


— to draw a, trati 
bin {accotmi), kalkulo 

— (any commercial doc.), bik> 

— {baHk)t banka bileto 

blllo {effects). In aboyanoo, baog 

— oiroulation, biloj aktiya; 

— Ilmitod, or barrod, bilpj 

blank form, Uanketo 
bond {financial), obUffado 
book-keopii^, -or, librotenado, 

-anto, -isto 
booktrade, libroyendado 
boom {financial), rapida plika- 

broaoh of oontraot, kontrakt. 

breakago, disrompado 
brief {barristet^s), instrukdo 
broker, bill, kambiomakleristo 

— thlp, gipmakleristo 

— etookf akcimakleritto, 


, brokantisto 

brohanica (m/), ouddero, 

bull, to {stock «r.X apeknlacn por 

buelneee, traneaotlon, neroco 
bye-taMT, recrulo 
oableffram,subinara telerrafa}o, 

— telegframo 
OallOO, kalikoto 

oall together, kunyoU 
Oanon Law, kanono 
capital {principal), kapitalo 
oarrlasre, a {ry.), yagrono 

— by rail, tervoja transporto 
oarrler, transportisto 
oartaji^ transporta pago 
cash C/WIM&), kaso 

— to buy for, a^eti kontante 

— to pay, pagi kontante 

— value, yaloro kontanta 


_ jkatak)so 
oattio, boyoj 
oauae (reason), kattso 
ooment, cemento 
oertlfloate, atesto 
oharaotor {testimonial), atesto 

pri bonmoreco 
oharffoe, eUpezoj, kostoj, pagoj 
oheiine, £eko 

— oreeeed, 6eko streklta 
ehlna {§arthenware), fajenoo 
olroular letter, drkolero, 

rondiranta letero 
Olvll {not miL or eccL), dyfla 
olalm, to, pretendi al 
olalm. etatement of, plenda 

olerk, komizo 
Ollent, kliento 
OOdO, leiraro, kodekso 
OOln {btUk), moneraro 
oommerolal traveller, yojafi:isfo, 

yoja^a komizo 
oommleelon, to, komisii 

— (order), komisio 

— (payment), procenta3o 

— aROnt, ag'cnto komisia, 


— to eell on, yendi procentaje 
oommittloner for oathe, 

komisario por atesti jurojn 
oommlttoe, komitato 


OOmpm^ tOk koakuri 
OonipronilMf fan 



oonfldenoe In, to havsi konfidi al 
oonflrm, te, konfirmi 

ooiMlgn, to, sendi 
oonolffnor, lendanto 

— 00, rioeranto, -into, -onto 
oonoignmoirt^ ■enda3o 

— Bffolnot rolmb Mro o m on t , 

kontrati repago 
oonoplro, to interUgi kontrati, 

konapiri kontrati 
oonoul, konsuk> 
oonoultatlon (tratik eotmwelU 

oontraot, kontrakti, -o, -anto 
oonvoyanoo, dokumento de 

oonvlot, tho. kondamnito 
oonvlotlon, kulpis[o 
oofiyrlgtlt, presrauto 
ooronor, enketisto 
ootton good 0, katuna3o, perkak> 
oountiiiflr houoo, kontoro 
OOupon (<fiv. tearron^X kupono 
oovor, to (expenses d^.)> eealigi 
orodlt, to, krediti« kredttigi 
orodltor, kreditoro 
erodltoro, to nuOco an arranvo- 

mentWltll, interkonBcnti^ 
Onmo, kruno 
orlmlnal (».), krimulp 

— iadj.)t krima, kriminala 
ouMoal oontonto, kubenhayo 
OUblo foot, kuba fiito 
oulprit, kulpulo 

ourronoy (moiuy), latile^ mono 
oiMtomor, kliento, a£etanto 
damasro, difekto, -a3o 
damaffoo (leg"}, kompensajo 

— to anto-, antatidati 

— to poot-, poatdati 

rtato whon rtuot dat£ak>, pagdato, 

tfaya of craoo, ra^iektotaffoj, 
limt a mp itf toggg 

doa r (^r ic#), kara, karpiresa 
oooontinno, ntpotcko 
tfoMt (/o ehatve), debeti 
dObt, H>r, ftuldo» -anto 

— floating, — kuranta 

— to ditoharso a, dpagi 
deooaood, mortinto 
doetalon {legale, dodio^ jt^fo 
doolaration, deklarado 
doolarod valiio, ▼ak>ro apedfr 

doolino, on ttM, malpUkariftanta 
doduot, rabati, -o 
deod, dokumento, akto 
default, In, manke 
defonoo (legal), respondo 
defendant, defendanto 
dofloltii deficito 
(fatay, prokrasto 
delQrederfl |d£:lcredflfo] 
dfillilvDr \ F^ii/r/i/y), livcrii -o> ^nto 
dimenaiflns, axnplekso, grandeco 

lilncny it mmedmttiy)^ tuj 

— i-uiiihdUi agency), HireirwrQ 
ffirvotOr, dircktoTD 

dtsoiiarKe {a shi^^,^ tO| ttuih 
inal*Uir|^]r elsjptgi 

ditoounti Jif^kontj, -o 

— {aiialemcn^}, rabato 
diecretion, diskrececo 
diepeneo with icoiuliiiom$\ 

dleeolutlon , of 

dividend, di^dendo 
I kun — 

divoroo, eksedzi^ 

dozen, «i^kd^io 

draft (fill), trato, kamUo 

draft (rough copy), malneto 

draw a bill, to, trati 

drawee, H>r, tratato, -anto 

drawbaok (di^y), npsigo d« 

dnr-soodeb aekkomerca}cg 
due Umm^X iuklata 
due time. In, natempe, ^tempe 
duty (moral), dero 

- frMPX i 



Ally, wbjMl ti. impostebla, 
— payabto hsf, 

gota de., 

dirty froe, afarankite pn depago, 

•mbargli, malpermeso 
endelited to. to Im, luldi 
endOTM, ^, -o 
endorsee, H>r, irirato, -anto 
envelope (letter), koverto 
eetate, havo 

— landed, bieao 
•videnoe, proof, prayo 

— to ^ve, atesti, -anto 
•zamlne, oheol^ kontroli, -o, 


— Inepeo^ ekgam«mi, -o, -anto 
exoeptlons, eubjeot to the, 

txohange, differenoe In, a|rio 

— lose on, kursopeido, l^^- 

malgajnot -malprobto 

— , StOOfc. akdborso 
txolee, akazo 
txeoute (a criminal), ekzekuti, 

-Ot -isto 
exeeute (fidfit), to, plenum! 

— a dooiiment. to, subskribi 
txeoutor, admimstranto (tetta- 

expert, an, kompetentulo, 

export, to, eksporti 

— trade, eksportkomercado 
faoe value, nominala valoro 
fkotor, faktoro 

fall (in price\ malpUkari^ 
ftuioy ffOOde (toilet), galanterio 
fee, pag-o, honorano 
finance, financo, -a, •«, -isto 
financial oondltlon, financa stato 
fine, monpuno 
firm (house), firmo 
fluotuate, to, balandli 

foot (measure), futo 
foriTO, falsi, -ado, -alo, -into 
f onward, to, ekspedi 
fonwardln^ affont, ektpediate 
free of, kvita pri 
hneliflltf transpm^Mico, 
■koato [finyt^ 

I deb^ £iama regnoSuldo 
sain, to, gajni 

— (to make a profit hy\ 
profit! (T.) 

I i^are), vitrajo 
_ (ime (weigkt), gramo 
groee (with tare), kuntare, brutte 
ffuarantoo, garantio, -ajo, 

— without, sen garantio 
Kuardlan, kuratoro, gardanto 
nassrlo (cheapen), mar^andi 
halUmarlk, kontrolmarko 
hardware, ferajo 

heotare (measure), hektaro 
heir (by will), tesUmenta 

— (at law), heredanto 
hire (of things), lukosto 

— (of persons), dungkosto 
hogrshead (cask), okshofto 
honour (a bill), to^ pagigi, 

efektivigi, akcepti 
hour, horo 

hundredwel^rht [centfiinto] 
Import, to, unporti 
Inaccuracy, malakurateco, -a3o, 
Inch, colo 

Inoome (from investments), 

'-'from business or prqfes- 
sion), enspezo 
Inccrrectneae, mal^steco 
Indenture, kontrakto, akto 
Inform, iniormi, -o 
Inherent deterioration, mem- 

IhJuvy (damage), difektajo 
Inquest (coroner's), enketo pri 

Instant, nuna, kuranta (monato) 
Instructions, instrukdo 
Insufficiency, nesufi^eco 
Insure, to, asekuri 
Insurance, asekurado 

— policy, asekura poliso 

— — , open, kuranta — 

— to effeot| pleaumi, 

Insurance, life, vivasekuro 

— fire, fajrasekuro 
Hltordlot, malpermesit -o 
Intorest, procento 
Nallee, In, kursiye 




8ur proceatOk kuni^antig 
IntermMllary mgwU perulo, 

Iniransltiif tranrirantet tranaira 
Imrentoiy, mventaro, etato 
Involoe, fakturo 
Jewellery, juvelaro 
Job (stock ex), a^oti. -o, -bto 
Job sroocie, fiko 
Joint stook 

Judse, ju^*,-o,-isto 
Jury, ju^antaro 
Juetloe, oourt of, ju^o 
IcloklnflT (of horses), iMedfirapado, 

mng'e enemloi, omdaj mal- 

huilnflr, enSar^o 
iamled propertaf, bieno 
iandlord, bienufo 
law, a, legro 

— Jurtopnidenoo, legroscienco 
iavNyer, Jurtoooneiilt, lefiro- 

law-suit, proceso 

— to sro te, proceai 
leap year, superjaro 
lease, a, lukontrakto 

— to take a: to hira, hii 
lessee, tenant, luanto 
lease, let, to, Ivdgi 
lessor, liugranto 

legatee,H>r, testamentato, -anto 
lesrfslate, legrdoni 

lees 3/p. ot. for tar% malpli 

3/p. ct. por taro 
letter of credit, kreditletero 
liable for, to be, esti responda'pri 
liabilities, Suldataro 
life estate, dumvlva havo 
liquidate, likvidi,-o.-anto 
litigation, procesado 
litre (measure), litro 
kMUl, to, enSarigri 
looal, fi-tiea, lolca 
looomotlve, lokomotivo 
toes, malgaino, perdo 

— to make a, malprofiti 
tot (of land), parcelo 

— (of goods), parto 

mall (ipost, the Utters), hrxtimro 

mafglnf bi tlie, marSpene 
mark (com), marko 
market (cofuHtum of husinets), 
Icomercado (good-) debito 

— (place qf sale) vendejo 

— prtoe, vendeja prezo 
marriage portion or eettto- 

ment, doto 
naany (of a man), edzi^,-o 

— (of a woman), edzmi|i,-o 
many (as by a jTather or clergy 

man), edugi, edzinigi 
materiale, materialo 
maturity, Umtempo, datfalo 
meanwhile, dume, nuntempe 
mM'ehant, negodsto, komerdsto 

— (salesman), vendisto 
merehandise, komercajo 
metre (rneasure), metro 
mile, mejlo 

minute (time), minuto 
minutee (records), protokolo 
money ohanger, mon&anlristo 
monttis, at .... , post .... 

monatoj ^ 
mortgage, hIpoteki,-o 
mortgagee, hipoteka fiuldanto 

— or, J— kredit<Mt> 
murder, mortigfi,-o,-anto 
mutualhff redproke 

neglect^ malatend, ma]zorgt,-o 
negoolate, to, trakti, &ui 

— bilie, diskonti kambiojn 
net prioe, senrabato 

— weiglit, sentare, nete 
next (month), venonta, prolcsima 
next of kin, heredanta parencaro 
notary, notario 

note, bought, a£etkontrakto 

— salee, vend- 
not exoeedlng,ne superante 
oath, 3uro 

oblige, to (make mdeHedi, 

obliged, to be, esti danka 

— (forced), esti devigata 
OfTer. proponi, -o, prezenti, -o 
opening (examination) Of ihm 

oases, kontrolo de la kestoj 
opportunely, ^Utempe 
option, elekto 

order (goods. a*c.), meodi,<o 
ounoe (weight), unoe 



•wmwl g ht, tropezo 
iwwr , posedanto 
paok, to, paid 
paokaffi, pakajo 

~ balOy pakajcffo 
paoklnff, pakado 

— Insufnolont^ — malfortika, 

— netufi^a 
par, al^ sampreze, ecralpreze, 

origrinala kosto 
paroel (qf land), parcdo 

— {of goods), parto 
paroel po«t, pakajpolto 
paro hm o nt , pereameno 
paiilament, paruunento 

■ member of, -ano 

partner, partisto, kompaniano 

— Sleeplnir, komandito 
patent {Utters), patento 
pattern, spedmeno, modelo, 

pay, pafiri,K> 
payable: pagroU 

— to bearer, — al portanto 

— to order, — latt ordono da 
payeo} ricevonto 

payer, pagranto 

payment on a/o, parte pago 

peounlary, mona 

pedigree, karto grenealogria 

penalty for nonperformanoe, 

monijuno pro neplenumo (ne- 

penny, penco 
peroentage, procento 
permit, to, permesi, -o 
pfenniflT, pfenigro 
plOtliroe, pentra^oj 
pialntHfy plendanto 
plate, oralaro, ar^entajaro 
platform hy.), perono, platajo 
plead ffullty, to, konfesi la 

krimon, kulpon 
pluiiglnflr {o/ horses), baraktado 
polloy, see insurance 
poet a/0 booke, to, enskribl 
poet {letter), poSto 
poetaflre, poStelspezoj 
poet nve, afrankite 
poet-offloe order, poltmandato 
poetal order, poftta £eko 
oound {weight), fimto 

— eteillng, — tterll^fe 

power of attorney, konfidatesto, 

prefeot, prefekto 
premium, (ms.)premio 
prepaid, atrankite 
preeent value, nuna valoro 
prioe list, prezaro 
prinolpal {money), kapitalo 

—and a^ent, 6efo kaj agrento 
print, presi, -a, -o, -ado, -isto, -ejo 

~ Inff plate, itereo, klik>, -a3o 

— — eieotro, g^alvano, -ajo 

— — machine, presmaSino 

— — type, presliteroj 

— — — to oompoee, 

komposti, •isto 
privilege, pnvilegio 
probate (act), pruvado 

— {theaoc.), pruvita testamento 
produoe, produktajo 

profit, profit!, -o 
prospeotue, prospekto 
proeeoute, persekuti, -o, -ato, 

protect, protest!, -o 
provided that, kondi^ ke 
provlelonalt provizora, -e . . 
public f undo, etoolct, regnosardo 
quality, kvalito 
quotoj to, dti 
quotation, preznoto 
ralie {ry-), reloj 
railway, fervojo 
raw material, produktajo kruda, 

ready money, kontanta, -a3o 

— eale, debito 
reaeonably. juste 
receipt* kvitanci,-o 
receipte, enspezo 
recommendation, rekomendo 
recover (a debt), kolekti, enkasiip 
redeemable {stock), 'fini^eUa, 

reduction (m ^ice) rabato 
reference, a, referenco 
reference to, with, rilate al 
refer eome one to, turni iun al 
regieter, reeistra libro 
regiltored (letter), rekomendiU 
regietration {of title), registrado 
regulate, reguMgi 
regulatione, regularo 
re-ineure^ reasekuri^-o 


I (hunness)t interrflato 
, tnritdokumento 
, trustworthy, fidioda 
_ . Ml, tOf fidi al 
rtmit, rimesi,-o 
rtnt, luprezo {see lease) 
repair, riparit rebonig^-o 
report raporti, -o, -anto 
nptr mmvt, reprezenti 
rtputatkm, reputado 
rMponslblllty, respondeco 
rMtraint of prinooo, malper- 
meso (haltado) de r^^nestroj 
rotailor, komerosto 
rotum or bonlfloatlM^ 

rotum of poo^ by, 

Der revenanta poMo 
rislltnilf rajta 
rlol^ tumulto 
rloo In prioo, plikari^ 

robbor, Stellsto, rabisto 
rotation. In any, lafi kia sgn vice 
rutty, to booome, rustigfi, -i^o 
■alary, waffoo, salajro 

w,jU, sigeu.-o.-ilo 
ooallnflT wax, ugelvakao 
•OOOnd itime)t sekundo 
•OOrotanff sekretario 
•ondor or ohippor, lendaiito, 

Ulta, {hired agenisU 

' lgrday,kalkultago,pacrdato 
mw^ <j («« company)^ akao 

— proforonoo, preferata akcio 

— OUmulatlvo, aina8i£:anU 

■haroholdor, akdhayanto 
OhllllnflT, silingo 
•ii^t, at, £e vido 

— 3 days aftor, 3 tagojn post 


•Ign or exoouto a doc, tOb 

•Igmature, subskribo 
•lump, rapida malpUkari^ 
•OllOltor, prokuratoro 

OObront. pag^okapabla 
•pooialh^, •pectalajo 

•quaro moaaurtb kradrata 

•taflrnatkNi, wccaaon>t ha1ta«io 
standard, normo 
•tapio, £dfprodukta3o 
station, {ry,\ stado 

— builcHiiflr, staddomo 

— 8>oodo, komerca3a — 
Statuary, statuaro 
StIpulatS} kondi^ -o 
storosb provizQi 

Stow, to, endarK [sthril 
StrlkS {indatstnalU atriki. -o 
SUblOOt, a iftfa state), reg^ato 
SUfrooato (tra$u.), sufoki. -a 

— (tHirans.)t sufoki^ -i^o 
suppnr (deliver), liven, -o, -anto 
SUhHdSt a, memmortisrinto 
swoar. )uri,-o, -aato, -into 
swindM, trompi, -o, -a, -e, -anto 
syndioata, sindikato 

tare, taro — p/M., taro. 

taro — p/ct. 
tarif , tanfo, taksaro, prezaro 
tax (dtdy)t imposto, depago 
tolMTam, teleffra£a3o, 

tanant, luanto 
tonanoy, luado 
term^ at, 6e tempKino 

— ^limtempo 
tostamont, wiU, tegtamenti, .o* 

-anto, -ato 
thoroabouts, pU-nudpU, 

tWkst, bileto 

— rstum, bileto de iro lug 


— doodS i titoliu dokuanentcg 
ton, [tuno] 

t ra de sma n, komerdeto 
trade mark, febrikmarko 
train (ry.) vagonaro 

— by fast, rapidire 

— by ffOOds, malrapidire 
tramway, tramvojo 
transfsr, cedi, -o, -anto, 

transdoni, &c. 
transit, transiro 
transmit, transsendi, -o, -ai^ 
trust, rinfff [tnuto] 



. ^ kuratoro 

— ahlB^ kuratorado 
HMmo, lasta (mooato) 
mMtar the oonditlon 

kondi£e. ke 
UHdertaJdnfff entrepreno 
lannMrohantable, subnorma 
MWlttlOahtey nevendebla 
Mpon arrhfftl, £e alveno 
Miwvard ttncienoy, plikari^emo 
iMiarar, prooeutigitto 
VMMiltf neokupaU 
vary, to (condditms), lan^ 
vMoutnoM {in animmU), 

— i lfj f, tOf konstati, kontroli 
wafMr (sro/X sisela^o 
warf tmlito 

wam (of court), nuvlato 
wia reh ouae, tenejo 

— ran^ teneja lu^zo 

— axpentet, tenejaj spezoj 

— ffOOda ax., komercajo kufie 

en nia tenejo 
oarahoiMinflT, tenejado 
way-billy ekspedbilo, -karto 
walgrhing, pesado 
araifflit, ff rOM, pezo kruda,brutta 

— net, pezo sentara, -neta 

— ffroat as net, pezo malneta 

por neta 
wholoiale daalar, komerdsto 

will, ser testament 
witnosa, atesti, -anto 
woollen ffoode, lana3o 
worth, to be. valori 
wrappera, kovriloj, envolviloj 

— repaired, — rebonigrit^ 
-> tta|ned» — makuUUj 

— torn, — ftiritaj 
yard (measured [trif utol 
yield {per cent\ procentdono . 


afloat and aohora, surSipe kaj 


Uel eble 

^flanko^eflanko, apud 

anoher to, ankron }tti 

^ ta draff, ankroo treai 

_\ {du€s)t havioa pago 

— (roadsiead), rodo 

aa near aa the ehip may aafely 

grot, kiel sendan^ere pl^ prok- 

ballaat, balasti, -o 
barratry [baraterio] 
bay, grolfeto 
Mil of lading, larfrbUo, 

blookade, blokado 
bond, In, sen depago, en 

impostejo kuSanta 
bottom {sea), fiindo 

— (iech,)t Sipo 
bottomry, Siphipoteko 
bound for, ironta al 
breakage of oeale, rampado 

(demeto) de sigeloj 
buoy, na^signo 
burthen, enhaveoo 
oanal, kanalo 
oapeizo, renvertt^ 
oaulk,tO, kalfatn 
oerUfloate of orlglRf 

Chart, markarto 
Charter party, Biplukontrakto 

olearanoe at ouetomai 

pagado de Timpostoj 
aado of elgrnale, sigrnalkodekao 
^■"-•^, kolizii, -o, -anto 

oontraband, see "smugrglmg" 
oomiptlon (decay), putro, -ado 

O, levmasino, levilego 

Dm houee, tmpostcgo 

damage by awaatbigi difeku3o 

pro §vitado 
demurrage, daya of« 

derellot, forlastta Sipo 
deviation (qf course), flaaUfto 
dook, doko 

— In, en doko 

— dry, ripardoko 
fathom, klafto 

fire on board, brulado sur Itpo, 

or sursipe 
floteam, na|fanta derompajo 
founder, to, droni, fiindeniri 
free on board, -on wharf, 

afrankite sur ftipen, — eur k^)en 


fun oargO» plena Ut^o 
haulingr, towliiflr, trenado 
haulasrOf trenkosto 
Jettison, for^eti. -alo ^ 
wylnfir days (for loadtng shtf), 

darttagoi _ ^ .^ 

Itftka^rs (m a ahtp\ traflui^o 

— ijrom a cask), forflui^o 

— allowance for ouhvard), 

rabato pro perdo 
llborty te mUi at, with, kua 

permeso eniri en. . . . 
lis in port to, resti en haveno 
llflThtorafiTS, prampago 
load (a vessel), 3arg:i 
look (canal), kluzo 
manlfsst of oaivo, manifesto 

moasursmsnt (ship's), enhave* 

navlgratlon, marveturado 

— of tho ship, ▼eturigo da 

la Sipo 
on board, surSipe, en^rg:ita 
porlls of tho ssa, mardangerqi 
pirats, pirato 
port, harbour, haveno 

— dues, haTenimpoetoj 
quarantine, kvaranteno 
quay, kajo ^ 

refit, reekipi, -o 
salvasre, savajo 
seaworthy, marveturebla, 

ohlpbujlder'o yard, fiipkon- 

Ship ohandlsr, Sipekiplsto 
ship frso In ease or mortality 

(qf animals), Sipo kvita pri la 

morto .... 
Ship lost or not lost, Sipo pe- 

reinta ati ne 
Shears (for lifting), Seroj 
smusarllngr, kontrabando, -a, 

-a3o, -isto 
spile (/o broach cr tap a cask\ 

spili, -ado 
Steam navigation, Tapormar^ 

Strand, 8urteri|i, -o 
survey, ekspertizi, -o, 4ftto 
tide, [tajdoj, marfluo 

tide, high, alta maro 

— low, malalta maro 
tiflrht, staunoh, firma« lortJka 
tonnaffO, enhavebleco [tuneco] 
tranship, transSar|:i 
ullage (wantage in cask), manko 
vermin, bestetoj, insektoj 
water-line, akvolinio, isLt^^ 
wharf, on thO; surk^e 
wharfage, k^opago 
wreck, uprompo 




anohor, ankro 

apparel (of ship), ilaro, ekipajo 

axlo, akso 

barge, gargrboato, pramego 

barque [barkdipo] 

berth, kuSejo 

binnaoie, kompasingo rbitaklo] 

bostj bonto 

— rowing, rrcnbcato 

— lorig, boatejro 

— Jollry, iKj^itttct 
bD^UwaJn [boatestro] 
bolter, kaldronego 
boom [bAliErK^t 

bow, anunpnj^ 
bbwBprlt, buapnto 
brigantlne [bri^kuno] 
cabin, lc£iJLLt(;»r cambreta 
oablfl, k.ibld 
c^liipen [kaJibrilD] 
oaptain, sipfstro 
Oarperttar, ^ipcaLrpeotiitxi 
capstan, krtp'Stana 
ehranDmnteri kroncmetm 
cOmpEi^a. kompaso 
era it i>j pr>}frai), Sipo| 
OranKt turni^c* [kraako) 

tide, flow, alfluo 

Mr, SipanaFO 
outter, kutro 
oyllnder, dlindro 
deok, ferdeko 

engine, eteam, Tapormalino 
— horizontal, horizontala 

— vtrttoal, vertikala 


IT. mehanlkwtcs 

— Oivll. infirenlero 
■ iffeliAo] 

boat {flat bottomed), 
fireman, hejtiato 
frigate, fre^rato 
furniture (of a ship), ekipajo 
galf [batimeto] 
■ralley {ship's), kutrcgo 
naweer, trenkablo 
hehn, tiller, direktilo 
heimeman, dirckilisto 
hoM, (0/ ship), holdo 
honejpower, fievalforto 
hull, iipkorpo 
keel, kilo 
ketoh [keSo] 
Hgtlter (see barf^) 
hinrer flugro] , 
maohlnery, maAinaro 
mae^ masto 

— fore, fokmasto [an^ti.] 

— nuUn, mezmasto [cef-] 

— mlzzen, kmcmasto [post-l 
mate, let, unua ofidro [maatoj 

— 2nd, dua — — 
merohantman, komerca lipo 
motor, motoro 

— > eleotrlo, elektromotoro 

— petrol, petrolmotoro 
Oare, remilo) 

paoket boa^ poltftipo 
fllfot, pUoti,-o 
pleton, piSto 
port {left side), babordo 

{riM aide), dekstra 

flanko, Tverda flankol 
pulley, blook, rulbloke 
pump, putnpilo 
ropee, 8nuroj,-egfoj 
rig^grlnflT, Snurarmaro 
rudder, direktilo 
eall, velo 

I Sipano 
r, skuno 
, firatibo 

— nut, ftraubingo 
eoxtant [sekstaato] 
eioop, Salupo 
ehip, ilpo 

— eallinflT, velSipo 
eprlteall [hokstangvelo] 
•team-ensrlne, vapormasinc 
eteamer, vaporfiipo 

— paddle, radvaporftipo 

— eorew, ftratib ^ 

— turbine, turbin— 

— tUflT, trenlipo 
etem, postparto 
•toker, bejtisto 
taokle, inuregSLTO 
two-maeter, a, dumastulo 
three-maeter, a, trimastulo 
valve, klapo 

— elide [gUtklapo] 

— eafety [dan|:erkla] 
Wlieel [direktilradol 
wrindlaee, ^ankrolevilo 
yaoht. jahto 
yard (sail), velatanffo 
yawl (jolol 


The time of day is expressed in the following ways : 


t.O ->la dua Hioro). 
2.10— la dua ka| dek minutqj. 
2.16— la dua kai kvarono. 
2.20— la dua kai dudek minutoj. 
2.30— la dua ka^ duono. 
2.46— la dua kaj tri kvaronoj. 
2.00— la dua kaj kvindek minuto). 

2.0 —la dua (horo). 
2.10— dek minutoj de la tria. 
2.16— (unu) kvarono de la trIa. 
2.20— dudek minutoj de la trIa. 
2.80— duono de la trIa. 
2.46— tri kvaronoj de la tria. 
2.60— kvindek minutoj de la tria. 





Apud — La £refian6oj staris apud la altaro. 

fie — £e tm paSo. fie la pordo. 

De — Li estas mirigita de la vidajo. (5#e also p. 2$) 

En — En Parizo. En la kunveno. 

Je — Je la kvara horo. Si ridas Je lia kolero. 

Per ^P®"* **** ^* prezo. 

Pri —Si ridas pri (or pro) lia kolero. 

8ur — Ili pafis unu sur la alian. 

Aoous. —Si ridas lian koleron. 

Advs. —(included in) TuJ, AlmenaO, lafoJ% Nune, JUk 


— Li estas amata de mi. {See also p, »$), 
Je — Mi tenis lin Je la kruro per Snureg-o. 

Laii — Mi restas tie di laii la ordono de mia estro. 

Per — La infano revenis hejmen tute per si mem. 

Li eliris el la urbo per flanka vojeto. 
Poet — lom poet iom. 
Preter — Du sinjoroj iris protor ni. 
Adverbe (included in) LOfiTantO^ ni lemas. Tafft* 

Lafita^e^ &c. 

De — Tro baldatl alvenis la horo dO foriro. 

De tri semajnoj mi estas malsana. 
Oum — Qum la tuta tagro. 
Lau — Si estas granda laQ sia a^o. 

Malerrau— Malgrrau 6io, li ne estas feli6a. 
Per — Tiu 6i monujo estas per vi. 

Pro — Oni laddis lin prO lia boneco. 

Morti pro la patrujo estas agrable. 
AOOIMi —Li restis sola la tutan taflTOn. 

* Abbreviated bT permission from General Cox's " Grammar and 
Commentary," publlsned by the British Esperanto Assodatioo, and 
which is ssstntisl to all serious students of Esperaatob 




Al — La lumo estas kaSata al ni per la kurtenoj. 

De — De tiu tempo. De lundo ^is vehdredo. 

El — Mi konkludis el Ha mienO) ke li estas oficiro. 

Mi desegnis ^in el memoro. 

KOfltraif —Mi estas Sirmata kontrafi la vento. 

Per — Tion mi sciig:is per (or de) mia frata 

Pro — Li tremis pro (or dO) timo. 

Sen — Ok eon (mMus) du faras ses. 


En — Li estas en la domo. 

Lail — \fiU mia opinio. 

Per * — Si estis tiel simila al la patrino per sia 

karaktero^ ke 

Por — Li havis sperton por la edukado. 

Post — Ni foriros post du tagoj. 

Sub — lo, sub la formo de homo, aperas. 

Sur — Promenante sur la strato, mi falis. 

Aeousative — Li estis naskita la Jaron 1902. 
Adverbs {included in) YesperSi Allvorte^ &c. 


Al — T-a amo al Dio (our love of God). 

Da — Of after words expressing quantity or 

De — Possession or origin. La amo dO Dio 

(God's love). 
El — El 6iuj miaj amikoj, li estas la plej forta. 

En — Jf^ plej granda 6ambro en la domo. 

Kun — Si estas virino kun gfusto. 

Por — l^a. plej bona metodo por fan gin. 

PrI — Si parolis pri sia frato. 

Pro —Li mortis pro (or dO) malsato. 

AcUeotive —Li esUs sperta homo {he is a man ti/l 





te — 6e tio, mi eliris el la 6ambro. 

De — Gi dependas lie aliaj kaOioj. 

En — En la tago difinita. 

Je — Mi gratulas vin ]• (or pri) via reveno. 

Kun ~Si donis ^n al mi kun (or 8Ub) tiu kondido. 

Post — Post plua konsidero. 

Pre — Pro (on account of) tio, mi lasis lin* 

Sub — Li vizitis min SUb la preteksto, ke....« 

8ur — La papero kuSas sur la tablo. 

Aeous. —Li donis ^in al mi lundon. 

AcUOOt. —(included in) La veturilo estas lusMa. 

Adverb —{included in) Dokstre, Intenoe, Pninte. 


Al — Mi iras al Parizo. Li diris al mi. 

En — Li ridetis en si mem. Li reins en la urbon. 

file — De sabato ^S mardo. 

Kontrau— Vizag:o kontraii viza^o. 

Kun —Li fian6i^s kun (or Je) mia kuzino. 

Per — Mi havas multe per fari. 

Si murmuretis duone per si mem. 

Si estis muta por 6iuj liaj demandcj. 
Sub — Sub la sono de muziko. 
8lir — 8ur la danan tronon, mi bavas rajtojn. 

Iri sur la kamparon. 

Aooue. —Mi iris Parizon. 

Adverb —(included in) Dekstrsn, Flankeni &c. 


6e — Por esti Oe li, mi fordonis 6ioa. 

De — Li eksaltis dO surprizo. 

El — Kion ni faros el tio? 

Je — Li okupis sin Je (or pri) mehanika 

Kun — Li paroladas kun sia amiko. 

Per — Li mortigis sin per glavo. 

Pri — Pri tio (with regard to that) mi tavas nenion 

por diri. 

Adverb — (fnc/M^</i»)R|latevianleteron(aralvialetero)« 



NOTE.— The translation purposely follows the Esperanto as closely 
as possible for the sake of comparison. It is not to be taken 
as a model of Engl sh style. In many cases, the meaning 
might be much more elegantly expressed, but the version 
would not then be so useful to the beginner. 

Word* m round brackets ( ) org necessaty m Etperanio onfyi 
those in square brackets [ ] w But^Ush onfy. 

Kx. 8. 

A father and a brother. A lion is an animaL A rote is a flower, 
and a pigeon i* a bird. The rose belongs to Theodore. The suo 
shines. (The) father is a tailor. 


A child 18 not a mature man. The child no longer cries. The sky 
is blue. Where are the book and the pencil? The book is upon the 
table and the pencil lies upon the window[8ill1. Upon the winaow[«ill] 
lie a pencil and a pen. Here is an apple, (The) father is welL On 
the ground lies a stone. 

Ex. 5. 

Here is the apple which I found. A lion is strong. The teeth of 
a lion are sharp. Do not give your hand to a lion. 1 see a lion. To 
remain with ahon is dangerous. Who dares to ride on a lion? I speak 
about a lion. 

Ex. 6. 

(The) father is good.^ Here lies (the) father's hat Tell (the) 
father that I am industrious. I love (the) father. Come together 
with (the) [your] father. The son stands near (the) Piis] fother. 
John's hand is clean. I know John. Lewb, give me [some] bread. 
I eat with (the) [my] mouth and smell with (the) [my] noee. Before 
the house stands a treei (The) father is in the room. 


Ex. 7. 

(The) birds fly. The 80ii|r of (the) birda is pleasant Ghre the 
birds water, as thev wish to drink. The boy drove away the birds. 
We see with the four] eyes and hear with the [our] ears. Good 
children ieam diligently. Alexander will not learn and so I beat 
Alexander. From the fmy] father I received a book, and from the 
, [my] brother I received a pen. I come from the [my] gnnd£a.thcr 
and I am now ifoinif to the [my] uncle. I am readings a book. (The 
£ather is not reading^ & book, but he is writing a letter. 

Ex. 8. 

Paper is white. White paper lies upon the taUe. The white 
paper no longer lies upon the table. This is the young lady's exer- 
cise4x>ok. (The) [my] father gave me a sweet apple. Tell mj 
3roung friend a pretty story* I do not like obstinate people. I wish 
you good day. Sir! Good morning! A ioyfiil festival 1 (I wish 
vou). What a joyous festival I (it is to-day). In the sky stamds the 
beautiful sun. During the day we see the bright sun, and during* 
the night we see the pale moon and the beautiful stars. Papa- is 
very white, l^t snow is whiter. Milk is more nourishing than wine. 
I have fresher bread than you. No, vou are mistaken, Sir: jrour 
bread is less fresh than mine. Of all mv children, Ernest is th« 
youngest. I am as strong as you. Of all his brothers, Anthony is 
the h»st wise. 

Ex. 9. 

Two men can do more than one. I^ have only one mouth, but 
I have two ears. He takes a walk with three dogs. He made 
everything with the ten fingers of his hands. Of her many duldren, 
some are good and others are bad. Five and seven make twelve. 
Ten and ten make twenty. Four and eighteen make twenty-two. 
Thirty and fourty-iive make seventy-five. One thousand nine hun- 
dred and five. He has eleven children. Sixty minutes make one 
hour, and one minute consists 'of sixty seconds. January is the first 
month of the vear, April is the fourth, November is the eleventh, 
December is the twelfth. The twentieth (day) of February is the 
fifty-first day of the year. The seventh day of the week God selected 
to be more holy than the six first da^ What did God create on the 
sixth day? What date is it to-day? To<^y is the twenty-seventh 
(day) of March. George Washington was bom [on] the twenty 
second of February in (of) the year one thousand seven himdred 
and] thirty-two. 


I have a hundred ^mles. I have a " hundred" of apples. I 
bought a dozen spoons ana two dozen forks. A thousand years (or 
a " thousand" of years) make a millennium. First, I return you the 
money which you lent me; secondly, I thank you for the loan; 
thirdly, I beg you, on a future occasion, to lend to me, when I require 
money. For each day I receive five francs, but for to<lay I received 


double payment, that it, ten francs. Five times seven is thirty-fiTe^ 
Three is a half of six. Bifirht is four-fifths of ten. Four metres of 
this material cost nine francs ; therefore two metres cost four and a 
half francs Tor of francs). One day is a three hundred and sixty fifth, 
or a three hundred and sixty sixth of a year. These two friends 
always walk about (two) together. Five together they threw them- 
selves upon me, but I overcame all five enemies. For my four 
children I bought twelve apples, and to each of the children I gave 
three apples apiece. This book has sixty pages ; therefore, if I read 
eadi day fifteen pages, I ^all finish the whole book in four days. 

Kx. 11. 

I am reading* Thou writest, (instead of thou we generally use 
you). He is a boy, and she is a girl. The knife cuts well, because it 
IS sharp. We are men. You are children. They are Russians. 
Where are the bovs ? They are in the garden. Where are the girls ? 
They are also in the garden. Where are the knives ? Thev lie upon 
the table. I call the boy and he comes. I call the ^rl and she comes. 
The child cries because it wants' to eat. The children cry, because 
they want to eat. Boy, you are impolite. Sir, you are impolite. 
Gentlemen, you are impolite. It is said that truth always conquers. 
In the winter they heat the stoves. Wh^ n one is rich, one has many 

Ex. 12. 

My dog, you are very faithful. He loves me but I do not love 
him. I wanted to beat him, but he ran away from me. Tell me jrour 
name. Do not write me such long letters. Come to me this evening. 
I will tell you a story. Will you tell me the truth ? The house belongs 
to him. He is my uncle, because my father is his brother. Mr. Peter 
and his wife love my children very much ; I also love theirs very much. 
Show them your new garment. I love myself, you love yourself, he 
loves himself, and every man loves himself. My brother told Stephen 
that he loved him more than himself. I take care of her like I take care 
of myself ; but she takes no care whatever of herself and does not 
protect herself at all. My brothers had guests today ; after supper 
our brothers went out of their house with their (the) guests and ac- 
companied them to their house. I have my hat already ; now look 
for yours. I washed myself in my room and she washed herself in 
her room. The child looked for its doll ; I showed the child where 
its doU lay. One does not easily forget one's first love. 

Ex. la. 

Now I am reading, you read, and he is reading ^— we are all 
reading. You are writing, and the children write : they all sit silently 
and write. Yesterday I met your son and he saluted me politely. 
To-day is Saturday and to-morrow will be Sunday. Yesterday was 
Friday, and the day after to-morrow will be Monday. Three days 
ago I visited your cousin and mv visit gave him pleasure. Have 
yoa already fouiid your ckKk? I have not looked for it yet: when 


I hare finished (aball finish) my work, I shaU look for mj dock, but 
I fear that I shall not find it any more. When I came to him he was 
asleep, but I awoke him. If I were well, I should be happy. If he 
knew that I were (am) here, he would come to me at once. If the 
learner knew his l^son well, his (the) teacher would not punish hinu 
Why do you not answer me? Are you deaf or dumb? Go awayt 
Child, do not touch the mirror! Dear children, always be honest. 
Let him come and I will forsrive him. Order (to) him not to chatter. 
B^ her to send me a candle. Let us be joy^l, let us use life well, 
for life is not long:. She wishes to dance. This dty has a nuUkm 
inhabitants. The diild does not cease bdn|r mischteTous. 

Ex. 14. 

Running: water is purer than water standing: still. (While) walkin|f 
In the street, I fell. When Nicodemus beats Joseph (then) Nicodemua 
is the beater, and Joseph is the beaten [oneT. God easilv pardons a 
man who has sinned unintentionally. Having; found an ai^^, 
I ate it. The fallen man could not raise himseu. Do not reproach 

imselt. uo not reproai 
your friend, for you yourself are more deservine [of] reproach: he is a 
person who has lied only once, while vou are always a har [still]. The 
time passed will nevermore return ; the future time, no-one knows yet. 

person who has Ued only once, while vou are ahrays a har [still]. The 
time passed will nevermore return ; the future time, no-one knowi 
Come, we await you, Saviour of the world 1 In the lang 

(.^me, we await you, baviour ot the world I in the language 
"Esperanto" we see the future language of the whole world. 
Augustus is my most beloved son. Money in hand (bdng had) 
is more^ important than [money that has] been had. _A sparrow 
caught is better than an eagle to be caught. The soldiers led the 
arrested persons throueh the streets, fie came to me quite un- 
expectedly. A man, whom one has to try (judge) is an accused, 
(to be tried one). 

Ex. 16. 

Now he tells me the truth. Yesterday he tcAdi me the truth. 
>Alien you saw us in the drawing-room he had already (previously) 
told me the truth. He will tell me the truth. When vou (will) come 
to me he will previously have told [tell] me the truth (or, he wUl have 
told me the truth : or, before you (will) come to me, he will tell me the 
truth). If I had asked him, he would have told me the truth. I should 
not have made the mistake, if he had previously told me the truth. 
When I (shall) come, tell me the truth. When my father comes (will 
come), tell me the truth (beforehand). I wish to tell you the truth. 
I wish what (that which) I said to be true (or, I wish to have told the 

Ex. 16. 

I am loved {ai ihe freserU Hmei I was lored ^ the Hmm 
referred to). I shall be loved. I should be loved (n^w). Be loved 
{now). To be loved (now). You have been washed (ihe actum is overj. 

Vou had been washed (freviouslv). You will have been 

You would have been washed (/as^). Be washed (^m^X To have been 

washed (/os^). He is to be invited. He was to be invited. He wiU 


beinTited. He would he inYited (m the /idurg). Be invited (m /A« 
future). To be about to be invited. The grreatcoat has been boug^ht 
by me, therefore it belongs to me. When yourhouse was being buUt, 
my house had already been built for a long time. Be easy, my entire 
debt will be paid (Past J to you soon. My gold ring would not now 
be so long looked for (pres.) if it had not been so cleverly hidden 
^ast) by you. According to the plan of the engineers, this railway 
Is to be built in the course of two years, but I think that it will be 
building more than three years. An honest man acts honestly. The 
pastor who died recently, resided a long time in our city. Is to-day 
warm or cold ? In the fire-place (or on the hearth), between two pots, 
stands an iron kettle; from the kettle, in which is boiling water, 
issues steam ; through the window, which is near the door, Ube steam 
goes into the yard. 

Ex. 17. 

Where are you? I am in the garden. Whither are you going ? 
I am going into the garden. The mrd flies Fabout^ in the room (it is 
in the room and flies Fabout] in it^. The bird flies into the room (it is 
outside the room and now flies into it). I am travelling in Spain. 
I am travelling to Spain. I am sitting on a chair and keep my (the) 
feet upon a stool. I place my (the) hand on the table. From under 
the couch the mouse ran under the bed, and now it runs [about] under 
the bed. Above the earth is air. Instead of coffee, he gave me tea 
with sugar, but without cream. I stand outside the house, and he is 
within. In the drawing-room was no one except him and his fiancee. 
The swallow flew across the river, because across the river were 
other swallows. I remain here according to the order of my chief. 
When he was at my house, he stood a whole hour near the 
window. He says that I am attentive. He begs me to be attentive. 
Although you are rich, I doubt if you are nappy. If you knew 
who he is, you would esteem him more. If he has already come, 
ask him [to come] to me. Oh God I what are you doing 1 Ah, how 
beautiful! Away from this I Fie, how abominable f Go more 
quickly, then! 


The article "la" is used when we speak about persons or things 
known. Its use is the same as in other languages. Persons who do 
not understand the use of the article (for example Russians or Poles 
who do not know another language besides their own), can at first 
not use the article at all, for it is convenient but not necessary. 
Instead of "la" we can also use 1' (but only after a preposition 
which ends with a vowel). Compound words are formed by a simple 
junction of words ; we generally take the pure roots, but if euphony 
or clearness demands, we can also take the whole word : that is, the 
root with its grammatical termination. Examples: — writing-table 
(a table on which we write) ; international (that which exists between 
various nations) ; universal (concerning the whole world) ; ephemeral 
(lasting one day); pertaining to the first day; steam-ship (a ship 
which moves itself by steam) ; ^ to breakfast, to dine, to sup ; sub- 
scr^ytion (payment for subscription to ^ journal). 


Ex. 19. 

All prepositions in themselves always require (only) the nomina- 
tive. It alter a preposition we ever use the accusative, the accusa- 
tive there depenos not on the preposition, but on other reasons. 
For example : to express direction, we add to the word the termi- 
nation " n " ; consequently, there (in^ that placeX thither (to that 
place); similarlv, we also say : "the bird flew into the i^arden, on to 
the table", and the word **f^zt^nt" *' table "^ here stand in [the] 
accusative, not because the prepositions '*in" and *'on" require 
this, but only because we wish to express direcHont that is, to show 
that the bird was not previously in the g^arden or on the table and 
flew [about] there, but that it flew from another place into the gra^i'den, 
on to the table (we wish to show that the grarden and table were not 
the localitv of the flving, but only the ^oal of the flig^ht) ; in such 
cases we should use the termination "n" just the same whether an^ 
preposition stood there or not. To-morrow I shall travel to Pans 
(•vuith and ttfithout prep.) I shall remain at home to-day. It is 
already time to %o home. We separated and went in different 
directions ; I went to the ri|:ht and he went to the Idt. To one side. 
Sir 1 I know no one in this city. I can in no manner understand 
what you say. I met neither him nor his brother (or, I did not meet 
either him or his brother). 

Ex. 2a 

If we want to use a preposition and the sense does not show ua 
which preposition to use, we can then employ the gr^neral preposition 
"je". But it is well to make use of the word "je" as scddom as 
possible. Instead of the word "je" we can also use an accusative 
ivithout preposition. I laug^h at your simplicity (or, I law?h on 
account of your simplicity ; or, I ridicule your simplicity). On the 
last occasion I saw (see) him at your house (or, the last time). 
I travelled two days and one night. I sig:h for my lost happiness (or, 
I bemoan mv lost happiness). From this said rule it follows that if, 
in the case of any verb, we do not know whether or not it requires the 
accusative after it (that is whether or inot it is transitive), we can 
always use the accusative. For example, we can say "to obey (to) 
the father " and " to obey the father.'' ^ut we do not use the accusa- 
tive where the clearness of the meaning forbids it : for example : we 
can say "to pardon (to) the enemy," and "to pardon the enemy"; 
but we ought always to say "to pardon to the enemy his fault." 

Ex. 21. 

This exercise is sufficiently explained in the iabU qf Correlative 
Words, pp, 40 and 41, and in the Notes p.. 39, 

Ex. 22. 

' time. He h ^_^ 

He is angry and storms. He shut the door angrily. His son died am) 

His anger lasted a long time. ^ He is tod^y in an angry mood. 
^ Hes' 


!■ now lifelesa. The body ifl mortali the eoul is imnuntaL He is 
mortally ill, he will not live more than one day. He speaks and his 
speech flows sweetly and agreeably. We made the contract not in 
writing: but verbally. He is a grood speaker. Standing outside, Jy 
could only see the exterior (side) of our house.^ He lives outside flb 
city. The exterior of this man is better than his interior. He did at 
once what I wished, and I thanked him for the immediate fulfilment 
of my desire. What a great blaze I What is burning? Wood is a 
good burning materiaL The iron rod which lay in the furnace is now 
burning hot. Did he give you an affirmative or negative reply ? He 
went out of the bedroom and went into the dining room. The bird 
did not fly away : it only flew down from the tree, flew to the house 
and flew up upon the roof. An instruction book one ought not to read 
through, but learn through. He wears a rose-coloured gown, and a 
mortar-board hat. In my writing table are four drawers. His 
moustaches are greyer than his whiskers. 

Ex. 23. 

A ^ theatre lover oiien visits the theatre, and soon acquires 
theatrical manners. [He] who occupies himself with mechanics is a 
mechanician, and [he] who occupies himself with chemistry is a 
chemist. A person skilled in diplomacy^ we can also call a diplomat, 
but a physicist we cannot call a "physic" because "physics" is the 
name of the science itself. The photographer photographed me and 
I sent my photograph to my father. To each pound of^ tea bought, 
this tradesman adds gratuitously a pound of sugar. A wine glass is 
a glass in which was previously wme, or whidi we use for wine : a 
glass of wine is a glass full of wine. Bring me a metre of black cloth 
^meiro de dra^o yvould mean a metre which has laid on cloth, or which 
IS used for cloth). I bought a dozen (of) eggs. This river is two hundred 
kilometres long. On the shore of the sea stood a crowd of people. Many 
birds fly in the autumn to warmer countries. Upon the tree were a 
multitude of birds. Some men feel happiest, when they witness the 
sufferings of their neighbours. In the room sat only a few persons. 
"Da"aner a word shows that this word has a sense of measure. 

Ex. 24. 

M V brother is not tall but he is also not short : he is of medium 
g rowth. He is so stout that he cannot pass through our narrow door . 
A hair is very fine. The night #as so dark that we could see nothing, 
even in front of our nose. This stale bread is Jas] hard as (a) stone. Bad 
children like to torment animals. He felt (hunself ) so unhappy that he 
cursed the day on which he was bom. I greatly despise this ignoble 
person. The window was long ajar : I closed it, but my brother im- 
mediate^ opened it again. A straight road is shorter than a curved 
[one]. The table stands crookedly and will probably soon uf^t. He 
stands above, upon the mountain, and looks below on the country. 
An enemy came into our land. They (one) hindered me so, that I 
spoilt my whole work. My father s wife is my mother, and the grands 


mother of my diildren. In the yard are a cock with three hens. My 
lister ie a very beautiful giii. My aunt is a good woman. I saw 

Egrrandmother with her four ^anddaugrbters and (with) my niece, 
stepmother is my sister-in-law. I have an ox and a cow. Tb« 
g widow became again a fianc^. 

Ex. 25. 

The knife was so blunt^ that I could not cut the meat with it, and 
I had to use my pocket knife. Have you a corkscrew to open the 
bottle? I wishea to lock the door but I had lost the key. She 
combs her hair with a silver comb. In summer we travel by means o4 
various vehicles and in winter we travel by means of a sledge. Today 
it is fine frosty weather, therefore I shall take my skates and g-o 
skatine. With an axe we hew, with a saw we saw, with a spade we 
die. widi a needle we sew, with scissors we shear, with a bell we ring^, 
wmi a whistle we whistle. My writing materials consist of an ink- 
stand, a sand-box, a few i>ens, a pencil and blotting paper. They 
placed in front of me eating utensils which consisted of a plate, 
a spoon, a knife, a fork, a small glass for brandy, a glass for wine, 
and a napkin. On a very hot day I like to walk in a forest. Our 
country will conquer because our army is large and brave. On a steep 
ladder he raised himself to the roof of the house. I do not know the 
Spanish language, but with the help of a Spanish-German dictionary 
I. nevertheless, somewhat understcxxl yonr letter. Upon those vast 
and fertile fields large herds of cattle pasturoi especially flocks ol 
fine-wool sheep. 

Ex. 26. 

You are talking nonsense, my friend. I drank tea with cake 
and preserve. Water is a fluid. I did not wish to drink the wine, 
as it contained some suspicious sediment. Ui>on the table stood 
various sweetmeats. In these little bottles are various adds : vinegar, 
sulphuric add, nitric add. and others. Your wine is only some kind of 
abominable acid (fluid). The addity of this vinegar is very weak. I ate 
a tasty omlette. This ^^reat eminence is not a natural mountain. The 
hdght of that mount^n is not very great. When I travel anywhere 
I never take with me much luggage. Shirts, collars, cxxSs, and other 
similar objects we call linen, although they are not always made of 
linen. This commodity is adways gladly bought hyr me. An ice is a 
sweet frozen dainty. The wealth of this man is great, but his 
foolishness is still ereater. He loves this girl on account of her beauty 
and goodness. His heroism pleas^ me very mudi. The whole 
surface of the lake was covered with floating leaves and various 
other plants. I live with him in great friendship. 

Ex. 27. 

A father and a mother together are called parents. Peter, Amis 
•ad Blixabedi are mv brothers-and-sisters. Mr. and Mrs. N. will 
corns to us this eveninir. I congratulated by telegraph the young 


married couple. The affianced pair stood by the altar. The 
father of my wife is my father-in-law, I am his son-in-law, and my 
father is my wife's father-in-law. All relations of my wife are my 
relations-in-law, consequently her brother is my brother-in-law, her 
sister is my sister-in-law ; my brother and sister (brethren) are the 
brethren-in-law of my wife. The wife of my nephew and the niece oi 
my wife are my nieces-in-law. A woman who treats the sick is a 
female doctor : a wife of a doctor is a doctor's wife. The wife of 
Dr. A. visited to-day the Drs. P. (Mr. & Mrs.) He is not a laundryman, 
he is a washerwoman's husband. The sons, g-randsons, and great 

f:randsons of a kinsr are a king's descendants. The Hebrews are 
sraelites because they descend from Israel. A foal is an immature 
horse, a chicken— an immature fowl, a calf— an immature ox, a 
fledglinsr— an immature bird. 

Ex. 2& 

The crew ought to obey the captain. All inhabitants of a state 
are members of a state. Town dwellers are usually more cun- 
ning^ than villagers. The ruler of our country is a good and wise 
king. The Parisians are gay people. Our provincial governor is 
strict but just. Our ^ city possesses good policemen but not a 
sufficiently energ^etic chief constable. Lutherans and Calvanists are 
Christians. Germans and Frenchmen who live in Russia are 
Russian residents, although they are not Russians. He is a dull 
and simple countryman. The inhabitants of one state are fellow 
countrymen the inhabitants of one city are fellow citizens, the pro- 
fessors of one religion are co-religionists. Our regimental com- 
mander is like a good father to (for) his soldiers. The bootmaker makes 
boots and shoes. The wood dealer sells wood and the joiner makes 
tables, chairs, and other wooden articles. A thief, no one lets 
into his house. The brave sailor was drowned in the sea. An 
author writes books and a writer simply copies papers. We have 
various servants : a cook, a housemaid, a nurse, and a coachman. 
The rich man has much money. Every one beats a stupid person 
A coward fears even his own shadow. He is a liar and an ig^obU 

Ex. 29. 

I bought for the children a little table and some little chairs. 
In our country [there] are no mountains, but only hills. Immediately 
after heating, the stove was burning hot, after an hour it was 
only hot, after two hours it was only somewhat warm, and after 
three hours it was quite cold. In summer we find coolness in thick 
forests. He sits near the table and dozes. A narrow path leads 
through this field to our house. Upon his face I saw a joyful smile. 
They opened the gate noisily (with noise), and the carriage drove 
into the courtyard. This was no loneer a simple shower but a 
rain-storm. An enormous doe put his lorepaw upon me, and from 
terror I did not know what to cb. In front of our army stood a large 
row of cannoo* 


Ex. SO. 

In the muddy weather my coat became rery dirty: I, therefore, 
took a brush and cleaned the coat. He became pale with fear, and 
afterwards he blushed with shame. He has become engstged to 
Miss Bertha : three months hence will be the weddine : the mar- 
riage ceremony will be in the new diurdi, and the weodincr festrval 
will be in the house of his future parents-in-law. This old man 
has become quite imbecile and childish. After an infectious illness one 
often burns the clothes of the invalid. Send your brother away as he 
hinders us. I notify that from now the debts of my son will not be 
paid by me. She married her cousin, although her parents wished 
to marry her to another person. In springtime the ice and the snoir 
melt. Fetch the doctor as I am ilL He procured for himself many 
books from Berlin. My uncle did not die (by) a natural death, but, 
nevertheless, he did not kill himself, nor was he killed by anyone ; one 
day, while walking near the railway lines, he fell under the wheels oi 
a moving train and was killed. I did not hang my hat ui>on this 
shrub ; but the wind blew the cap from my head, and. flying* it hune 
itself on the branches of the shrub. Bte seated, sir I The youta 
joined our army and bravely fought with us against our enemies, 

Ex. SI. 

Steel is flexible, but iron is not flexible. Glass is fragile and tran»> 
parent. Not every plant is edible. Your speech is ^uite incomprehen- 
sible, and your letters are always written quite illegibly. Tell me your 
unhappiness, for, possibly, I smdl be able to hdp you. He told me a 
story [that was] quite incredible. Do you love your father? What 
a question I of course, I love him. I shall, probably, not be able to 
come to you to-day, as I think that I mysdf shall have guests to-day. 
He is a man unworthy^ of belief. Your action is very praiseworthy. 
This important day will ever remain memorable for me. His wife 
is very industrious and thrifty, but she is also verv talkative and 
noisy. He is very irascible, and <^ten becomes ocdtea at the smallest 
trifle ; still, he is very forgiving, he does not bear anger lon^, and he 
is not at all vindictive. He is very credulous ; even the most incredible 
things which the^ most untrustworthy people tell him, he immediately 
believes. ^ A centime, a pfenning, and a kopek are coins. A grain of 
sand fell into mv eye. He is very cleanly, and even a^ speck of dust 
you will not find upon his coat. A single spark is sufficient to explode 

Ex. 32. 

In the course of a few minutes I heard two shots. The shooting 
continued for a very long time. I started with surprise. I jump very 
cleverly. I leapt all day from place to place. He was always accus- 
tomed to tell me the truth. His yesterday's speech was very fine, 
but too much speaking tires him. When you oegan to speak, we 
expected to hear something new, but s<xm we saw that we were mis- 
taken. He is singing a very beautiful song. Singing is an agre^" 


able occupation. The diamond has a beautiful sparkle. Two flashes 
of Ughtninsr passed across the dark sky. The house in which people 
learn is a school, and the building^ in which people pray is a church. 
The cook is (habitually) in the kitchen. The doctor advised me to g^o 
to a Turkish bath. A shop^ in which we sell dgrars, or a room m 
which we store dgrars, is a d^ar-store: a small box or other object 
in which we keep dgars is a agar case : a little tube in which we put 
a dgar, when we smoke it, is a dgar-holder. A box in which we keep 
pens is a pen-case : and a little stick on which we hold a pen for 
writing is a pen-holder. In the candlestick was a burning candle. In 
my trousers' pocket I carry a purse, and in the pocket of my great coat 
I carry a pocket-book ; a larger portfolio I carry under my arm. 
Russians live in Russia and Germans in Germany. To die for our (the) 
fatherland is pleasant. 

Ex. as. 

We all met together to discuss a very important matter, but we 
could not attain any result, and we separated. Misery often unites 
people and happiness often separates them. I tore up the letter and 
scattered its fra^fments into all the corners of the room. He ^ave me 
money, but I unmediatelv returned it to him. I am gom^ out, 
but await me, as I shall soon return. The Sun reflects in the 
dear water of the river. I said to the king : Your Majesty, 
pardon me I Of the three letters, one was addressed, the Right Rev. 
the Bishop of N. ; the second, to His Excellency, Count P. ; the 
third, to vie Honourable Mr. D. The suflix um has no definite 
meaning, and therefore the (very few) words with um one should 
learn as simple words. For instance : plenuml, kolumo, manuitio. 
I willingly fulfilled his desire. In bad weather one can easily catch 

Ex. 84. 


A certain widow had two daughters. The elder was so like the 
mother in her diaracter and face, that every one who saw her might 
think that he saw (sees) the mother : they were both so disagreeable and 
proud that one could not live with them. The younger daug^hter who 
was the exact image of her father in (her) goodness and integrity, 
was, in addition, one of the most beautiful girls (that) one could find. 

Ex. S5. 

THE FAIRY^conimuaHoH). 

As every one generally loves a person who is like him [self], 
(therefore) this mother ardently loved her elder daughter and at the 
same time (she) had a terrible hatred against the younger. She com- 
pelled her to eat in the kitchen and work incessantly. Among other 
things, this unhappy child had, twice every day, to go to draw water 
in a very distant placp, and carry home a great full pitcher. 


Ex. 86. 

THB FASRY-^auUmumham), 

One day when she was beside that springTi [there] came to her 
a poor woman* who begeed her to give heir to dnnk. ** Very 
wiilingrly, my cfood woman, said the beautiful girl. And she imm^ 
diately washed her pitcher and drew water in the cleanest part of the 
spring:, and carried [it] to the woman, (always) supporting: the pitcher 
so that the woman could drink more conveniently. When the srood 
woman had quenched her thirst, she said to the girl : " You are so 
beautiful, so 8:ood, and so honest, that I must make vou a present " 
(for this was a fairy who had taken on herself the shape of a poor 
village woman to see how g:reat would (will) be the courtesy oT this 
young girl), ** I make you a present," continued the fair^, " uiat with 
every word that you (shall) say, from your mouth shall issue either « 
flower or a precious stone. 

Ex. 87. 

THE FAIRY-(aMi^flfa/iMX 

When this beautiful g:irl came home, her mother asked her 
roughly why she returned so late from the spring*. ''Forgive me, 
mother," said the unhappy child, "for staying so long." And when 
she had spoken these words, [there] leapt out of her moudi three 
roses, three pearls, and three lai^e diamonds. " What do I see," said 
her mother with [the] greatest amazement. " It seems to me that 
from her mouth leap out pearls and diamonds I Whence (from what) 
comes this thing, mv daughter." (This was the first time that she 
(had) called her her daughter). The unhappy child told her artlessly 
all that (haul) happened to her, and while she ^>oke (there) fell out of 
her mouth a large number of diamonds. *' If it be so," said her (the) 
mother, " I must send my daughter there. Molly, look, what comes 
out of the mouth of your sister when she speaks : would vou not like 
to have the same kind of power ? You n^d only go to the spring to 
draw water, and when a poor woman asks (to) drink of you, you will 
give it to her politely." 

Ex. 88. 

THB FJdRY^coiUm$taHm), 

** It would be verv fine," replied the daughter rudely, ** for me to 
fthat I should) go to the spring. " I wish you to go there," said her 
(the) mother, " and go at once I ' The daughter wenC but grumUing all 
the time. She took the most beautiful silver vase that was in the 
house. Scarcely [had] she come to the spring (when) she saw a 
certain ladv, very richly dressed, who emera:ed from the forest and 
begcred of her to drink (this was the same tairy, who had taken on 
herself the shape and dress of a princess, to see how jgrcAt would (will) 
be the badness of this girl). ** Did I come hither, said to her the 


rude and pfx>ud pxl, ** to rive you (to) drink 7 Certainlyi I brought a 
•flyer vase ■peaally (for taat), to give (to) drink to this lady I My 
opinion is^ tsike water yrurseu if you wish to drink." '* You are not 
at all pohte," said the fairy without angler. *' Well, as you are so 
oUigingf, I inake you a present, that with every word that you (shall) 
•ay, firotn your mouth shall issue either a snake or a froir*" 

Ex. 89. 

THB FAlRY-^amimuaium), 

Scarcely fhad] her mother noticed her [when] she called to her, 
"Well, mvdaugrhter?" "Yes, mother," replied the girl, ejecting: a 
snake ana a frog,^ ** Oh, heavens I " exclaimed the mother, " What 
do I see ? Her sister is to blame for everything, I will pay her for 
this I " And she ran at once to beat her. The unhappy child ran 
away and hid herself in the nearest forest. The king's son, who was 
returning from the chase, met her ; and observing Uiat she was (is) 
so beautiful, he asked her, what she is doing here, quite alone, and for 
what reason she is crying. ** Alas I sir, my mother drove me out ok 
the house." 

Ex. 40. 

THB FAIRY-<am/iMiMi^foiiX 

The Prince, who noticed that from her mouth issued (some) pearls 
and diamonds, asked her to tell him whence this came (comes). She 
told him her whole adventure. The prince considered that such a 
capacity hsd (has) greater value than all which one could give as a 
dowry to anoUier maiden, [and] led her forth to the palace of his 
father, the king, where he married her. But concerning her sister, we 
may say that she became so hateful, that her own mother drove her 
away from her ; and the unhappy girl having wandered about a long 
time (much), and having found no one who would recave her, sooo 
died in a comer of a forest. 

Mittsd by Cassbu. * CourAKY, Ltanlted, Lsdgste HU, LoadoB, ItC. 


tiK BrltisD esperanto nssoctation 


Hon. Prisident: Dr. LOUIS ZAMBNHOF. 


JOHN POLLEN, CLE., LL.D., Lt.-Col. B.V.R. («.), V.D. 

Secretary : HARALD CLEGG, F.B.E.A. 

Offics of thb Association, where all commimications ikould frt 

addressed : 


Thb British Esperanto Association is the Union of all the Esperanto 
Societies throughout the Empire, and has been established to 
promote in every wav the spread of the " Intematioiial Auxiliary 
Language, Esperanto,^' and especially by : 

(a) Promoting the formation of new Local Groups ; 

(6) Distributing information and publishing propaganda Uteratore ; 

(c) Organising Examinations and granting Certtficatea ot Pro- 
ficiency ; 

(i) Promoting Lectures and arranging Loans.of Literature, fto. ; 

(«) Making arrangements for Congresses at home and abroad ; 
and to maintain headquarters in London where all Esperantists may 
obtain information and assistance in their work. 

A list of Groups afiUiated to the B. E. A., and a Oaialoinie of 
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There are two Examinations of Proficiency: Preliminary and 
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The Subscription for " Members " is 5s. per annum. The Associa- 
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sympathy with the idea of an " International Auxiliary Language " 
are therefore invited to join. Members have the privilege of 
purchasing Esperanto PubUcations sold by the B. E. A. at reduced 
prices. _-_-__^________3__^ 

CDe BrittsD €$iKraiiil$t 

with which is Incorporated "THE ESPERANTIST.* 
Thb Official Journal of thb British Espbranto Associatioii, 

Monthly 3d, ; Yearly Subscription, Post Free, 3s, 
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to every English Student of Esperanto. 

A Specimen Copy sent on Application, 
I by The Britieh Eepenuito Aeeooiatleiiv 1S| AruMM Sfc« 

^P^CT ^ /so ft 

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